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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Behavioral Evaluation of Odor Memory in Mice
    Authors:  Afif J. Aqrabawi and Jun Chul Kim, date: 09/20/2018, view: 15, Q&A: 0
    Behavioural tests based on the spontaneous recognition paradigm have been used extensively for examining the memory capacity of rodents. By exploiting their innate preference to investigate novel stimuli, inferences can be drawn about the perceived ...
    6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) Oxidative Stress Assay for Observing Dopaminergic Neuron Loss in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Authors:  Sarah-Lena Offenburger and Anton Gartner, date: 09/20/2018, view: 11, Q&A: 0
    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful genetic model that can be used to investigate neuronal death. Research using C. elegans has been crucial to characterize cell death programmes that are conserved in mammals. Many ...
    Artificial Inhalation Protocol in Adult Mice
    Authors:  Thomas P. Eiting and Matt Wachowiak, date: 09/20/2018, view: 18, Q&A: 0
    Research in the area of in vivo olfactory physiology benefits from having direct access to the nasal airways through which odorants can be presented. Ordinarily, the passage of odorants through the airways is controlled by respiratory ...
    Assessing Classical Olfactory Fear Conditioning by Behavioral Freezing in Mice
    Authors:  Jordan M. Ross and Max L. Fletcher, date: 09/20/2018, view: 16, Q&A: 0
    Classical fear conditioning typically involves pairing a discrete cue with a foot shock. Quantifying behavioral freezing to the learned cue is a crucial assay for neuroscience studies focused on learning and memory. Many paradigms utilize discrete ...
    Classic Labyrinth Test for Neurobehavioral Evaluation in Wistar Rats
    Author:  Salim Gasmi, date: 09/20/2018, view: 22, Q&A: 0
    The Classic Labyrinth Test (CLT) is a simple way to evaluate behaviors in rodents such as learning ability, memory, and anxiety. The protocol presented here describes the procedure for use with rats, but the protocol can also be adapted for use in ...
    A Behavioral Assay to Examine the Effects of Kavalactones on Caenorhabditis elegans Neuromuscular Excitability
    Kavalactones are a class of lactone compounds found in Kava, a traditional beverage from the South Pacific Islands that is derived from the root of Piper methysticum. When consumed, these compounds produce sedative and anxiolytic effects, ...
    Behavioral Evaluation of Odor Memory in Mice
    Authors:  Afif J. Aqrabawi and Jun Chul Kim, date: 09/20/2018, view: 15, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Behavioural tests based on the spontaneous recognition paradigm have been used extensively for examining the memory capacity of rodents. By exploiting their innate preference to investigate novel stimuli, inferences can be drawn about the perceived familiarity of encountered objects. Olfaction is the dominant sense used by mice to navigate their ...
    6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) Oxidative Stress Assay for Observing Dopaminergic Neuron Loss in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Authors:  Sarah-Lena Offenburger and Anton Gartner, date: 09/20/2018, view: 11, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful genetic model that can be used to investigate neuronal death. Research using C. elegans has been crucial to characterize cell death programmes that are conserved in mammals. Many neuronal signaling components, such as those mediating dopaminergic neurotransmission, are preserved ...
    Artificial Inhalation Protocol in Adult Mice
    Authors:  Thomas P. Eiting and Matt Wachowiak, date: 09/20/2018, view: 18, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Research in the area of in vivo olfactory physiology benefits from having direct access to the nasal airways through which odorants can be presented. Ordinarily, the passage of odorants through the airways is controlled by respiratory rhythm. This fact makes it difficult to control the timing and strength of an olfactory stimulus, since ...
    Assessing Classical Olfactory Fear Conditioning by Behavioral Freezing in Mice
    Authors:  Jordan M. Ross and Max L. Fletcher, date: 09/20/2018, view: 16, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Classical fear conditioning typically involves pairing a discrete cue with a foot shock. Quantifying behavioral freezing to the learned cue is a crucial assay for neuroscience studies focused on learning and memory. Many paradigms utilize discrete stimuli such as tones; however, given mice are odor-driven animals and the wide variety of odorants ...
    Classic Labyrinth Test for Neurobehavioral Evaluation in Wistar Rats
    Author:  Salim Gasmi, date: 09/20/2018, view: 22, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The Classic Labyrinth Test (CLT) is a simple way to evaluate behaviors in rodents such as learning ability, memory, and anxiety. The protocol presented here describes the procedure for use with rats, but the protocol can also be adapted for use in mice if a smaller device is used. In short, the CLT uses a square-shaped maze with a starting point ...
    A Behavioral Assay to Examine the Effects of Kavalactones on Caenorhabditis elegans Neuromuscular Excitability
    [Abstract] Kavalactones are a class of lactone compounds found in Kava, a traditional beverage from the South Pacific Islands that is derived from the root of Piper methysticum. When consumed, these compounds produce sedative and anxiolytic effects, suggesting their potent actions on the nervous system. Here, we provide a protocol to examine the ...
    Studying the Mechanisms of Developmental Vocal Learning and Adult Vocal Performance in Zebra Finches through Lentiviral Injection
    Authors:  Zhimin Shi, Ofer Tchernichovski and XiaoChing Li, date: 09/05/2018, view: 113, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Here we provide a detailed step-by-step protocol for using lentivirus to manipulate miRNA expression in Area X of juvenile zebra finches and for analyzing the consequences on song learning and song performance. This protocol has four parts: 1) making the lentiviral construct to overexpress miRNA miR-9; 2) packaging the lentiviral vector; 3) ...
    Phagocytosis Assay for α-Synuclein Fibril Uptake by Mouse Primary Microglia
    Authors:  Cuilian Du, Feifan Zhang and Claire Xi Zhang, date: 09/05/2018, view: 111, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Microglia are professional phagocytes in the brain and deficiency in their phagocytic activity plays an important role in Parkinson’s disease. This protocol mainly describes the phagocytosis assay for uptake of α-synuclein preformed fibrils, a pathologic form of α-synuclein, by primary microglia.
    Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced Convulsion Assay to Determine GABAergic Defects in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Authors:  Shruti Thapliyal and Kavita Babu, date: 09/05/2018, view: 100, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) is a GABAA receptor antagonist and is used to monitor presynaptic defects in the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. PTZ is a competitive inhibitor of GABA, and prevents binding of GABA on the GABAA receptors present on the surface of muscle. In the absence of GABA binding, the excitatory ...
    Shock-probe Defensive Burying Test to Measure Active versus Passive Coping Style in Response to an Aversive Stimulus in Rats
    Authors:  Elizabeth A. Fucich and David A. Morilak, date: 09/05/2018, view: 101, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Maladaptive avoidance behaviors are seen in many stress-related psychiatric illnesses. Patients with these illnesses favor passive, avoidant coping strategies rather than adaptive, active coping strategies. Preclinically, coping strategy can be measured in rats using the shock-probe defensive burying test, wherein rats receive a shock from an ...