Neuroscience

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Imaging Microtubules in vitro at High Resolution while Preserving their Structure
    Authors:  Camille Cuveillier, Yasmina Saoudi, Isabelle Arnal and Christian Delphin, date: 04/05/2021, view: 192, Q&A: 0

    Microtubules (MT) are the most rigid component of the cytoskeleton. Nevertheless, they often appear highly curved in the cellular context and the mechanisms governing their overall shape are poorly understood. Currently, in vitro microtubule

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    Cranioplastic Surgery and Acclimation Training for Awake Mouse fMRI
    Authors:  Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Kota Tamada, Clement Debacker, Andrew Zalesky and Toru Takumi, date: 04/05/2021, view: 197, Q&A: 0

    MRI is a promising tool for translational research to link brain function and structure in animal models of disease to patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. However, given that mouse functional MRI (fMRI) typically relies on anesthetics to

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    Cranioplastic Surgery and Acclimation Training for Awake Mouse fMRI
    Authors:  Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Kota Tamada, Clement Debacker, Andrew Zalesky and Toru Takumi, date: 04/05/2021, view: 197, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    MRI is a promising tool for translational research to link brain function and structure in animal models of disease to patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. However, given that mouse functional MRI (fMRI) typically relies on anesthetics to suppress head motion and physiological noise, it has been difficult to directly compare brain fMRI in

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    Imaging Microtubules in vitro at High Resolution while Preserving their Structure
    Authors:  Camille Cuveillier, Yasmina Saoudi, Isabelle Arnal and Christian Delphin, date: 04/05/2021, view: 192, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Microtubules (MT) are the most rigid component of the cytoskeleton. Nevertheless, they often appear highly curved in the cellular context and the mechanisms governing their overall shape are poorly understood. Currently, in vitro microtubule analysis relies primarily on electron microscopy for its high resolution and Total Internal Reflection

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    A Time Duration Discrimination Task for the Study of Elapsed Time Processing in Rats
    [Abstract]

    Space and time are both essential features of episodic memory. However, while spatial tasks have been used effectively to study the behavioral relevance of place cells, the behavioral paradigms utilized for the study of time cells have not used time duration as a variable that animals need to be aware of to solve the task. In order to evaluate how

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    Investigate Synaptic Vesicles Mobility in Neuronal Culture Axons by FRAP Imaging
    Authors:  Xiao Min Zhang, Fabrice P. Cordelieres and Etienne Herzog, date: 03/20/2021, view: 590, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are clustered in the presynaptic terminals and consistently trafficking along axons. Based on their release features, SVs are classified into different “pools”. Imaging of SVs that are traveling among multiple presynaptic terminals has helped define a new pool named “SV super-pool”. Here we describe

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    Ligand and Carbohydrate Engagement (LACE) Assay and Fluorescence Quantification on Murine Neural Tissue
    Authors:  James M. Clegg and Thomas Pratt, date: 03/20/2021, view: 419, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The interaction between cell surface heparan sulphate and diffusible ligands such as FGFs is of vital importance for downstream signaling, however, there are few techniques that can be used to investigate this binding event. The ligand and carbohydrate engagement (LACE) assay is a powerful tool which can be used to probe the molecular interaction

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    Transcardiac Perfusion of the Mouse for Brain Tissue Dissection and Fixation
    Authors:  Jinyun Wu, Yuqi Cai, Xiaoyang Wu, Yue Ying, Yilin Tai and Miao He, date: 03/05/2021, view: 806, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Transcardiac perfusion with saline followed by 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) is widely used to clear blood and preserve brain for immunostaining or in situ hybridization. PFA breaks into formaldehyde in solution, which cross-link protein and DNA molecules to preserve tissue and cell structure. Here we provide a step by step guide for ...
    Dissociating Behavior and Spatial Working Memory Demands Using an H Maze
    Authors:  Hannah S. Wirtshafter, Moqing Quan and Matthew A. Wilson, date: 03/05/2021, view: 645, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The development of mazes for animal experiments has allowed for the investigation of cognitive maps and place cells, spatial working memory, naturalistic navigation, perseverance, exploration, and choice and motivated behavior. However, many mazes, such as the T maze, currently developed to test learning and memory, do not distinguish temporally

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    Generation of Mouse Primary Hypothalamic Neuronal Cultures for Circadian Bioluminescence Assays
    Authors:  Cosima X. Schmidt, Anthony H. Tsang and Henrik Oster, date: 03/05/2021, view: 473, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    An endogenous circadian clock system enables organisms to adapt to time-of-day dependent environmental changes. In consequence, most physiological processes exhibit daily rhythms of, e.g., energy metabolism, immune function, sleep, or hormone production. Hypothalamic circadian clocks have been identified to play a particular role in coordinating

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    Generation of Human iPSC-derived Neural Progenitor Cells (NPCs) as Drug Discovery Model for Neurological and Mitochondrial Disorders
    Authors:  Annika Zink, Pawel Lisowski and Alessandro Prigione, date: 03/05/2021, view: 786, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The high attrition rate in drug development processes calls for additional human-based model systems. However, in the context of brain disorders, sampling live neuronal cells for compound testing is not applicable. The use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the field of neuronal disease modeling and drug discovery.

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    Tracing Nitrogen Metabolism in Mouse Tissues with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
    Authors:  Rong Xu, Yekai Wang and Jianhai Du, date: 02/20/2021, view: 921, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Nitrogen-containing metabolites including ammonia, amino acids, and nucleotides, are essential for cell metabolism, growth, and neural transmission. Nitrogen metabolism is tightly coordinated with carbon metabolism in the breakdown and biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides. Both nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

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