Protocols in Current Issue
    Competition Assays to Quantify the Effect of Biocontrol Yeasts against Plant Pathogenic Fungi on Fruits
    Authors:  Electine Magoye, Melanie Pfister, Maja Hilber-Bodmer and Florian M. Freimoser, date: 02/05/2020, view: 957, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Yeasts such as Aureobasidium pullulans are unicellular fungi that occur in all environments and play important roles in biotechnology, medicine, food and beverage production, research, and agriculture. In the latter, yeasts are explored as biocontrol agents for the control of plant pathogenic fungi (e.g., Botrytis cinerea, ...
    Identification and Quantification of Secondary Metabolites by LC-MS from Plant-associated Pseudomonas aurantiaca and Pseudomonas chlororaphis
    Authors:  Izzah Shahid, Muhammad Rizwan and Samina Mehnaz, date: 01/20/2018, view: 6822, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Increased antibiotic resistance of plants and human pathogens and continuous use of chemical fertilizers has pushed microbiologists to explore new microbial sources as potential antagonists. In this study, eight strains of Pseudomonas aurantiaca and Pseudomonas chlororaphis, have been isolated from different plant sources and ...
    In vitro Cell Wall Stress Assay for Fusarium oxysporum
    Authors:  Elena Pérez-Nadales and Antonio Di Pietro, date: 09/05/2016, view: 7021, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In this protocol we describe a cell wall stress assay for the fungal pathogen F. oxysporum, based on exposure to the two anionic dyes Calcofluor White (CFW) and Congo Red (CR). Both compounds have been used to exert stress upon the fungal cell wall in vitro (Perez-Nadales and Di Pietro, 2015; Perez-Nadales and Di Pietro, 2011; ...
    Antifungal and Zearalenone Inhibitory Activity of Ocimum sanctum L. Essential Oil on Fusarium graminearum Determined by UHPLC and RT-qPCR
    [Abstract] Fusarium graminearum has been given special attention in the context of agricultural commodities due to its ability to grow in diverse climatic conditions, and to produce different mycotoxins including zearalenone (ZEA) and type-B trichothecenes, which cause ill health effects on humans, animals and plants. The application of synthetic ...
    XTT Assay of Antifungal Activity
    Authors:  Flávio V. Loures and Stuart M. Levitz, date: 08/05/2015, view: 7221, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] XTT assay is a colorimetric method that uses the tetrazolium dye, 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphenyl)-(2H)-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) to quantify cell-mediated damage to fungi. Actively respiring fungal cells convert the water-soluble XTT to a water-soluble, orange colored formazan product (Meshulam et al., 1995). Here, we ...
    Large-scale Phenotypic Profiling of Gene Deletion Mutants in Candida glabrata
    Authors:  Fabian Istel, Tobias Schwarzmüller, Michael Tscherner and Karl Kuchler, date: 07/20/2015, view: 7828, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Here, we describe a method enabling the phenotypic profiling of genome-scale deletion collections of fungal mutants to detect phenotypes for various stress conditions. These stress conditions include among many others antifungal drug susceptibility, temperature-induced and osmotic as well as heavy metal or oxidative stress. The protocol was ...
    Detection of Hog1 Phosphorylation in Candida albicans in Response to an Antifungal Protein
    Authors:  Brigitte ME Hayes and Nicole L van der Weerden, date: 09/20/2014, view: 6791, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] It is becoming increasingly apparent that stress signalling is important for tolerance of fungal species to antifungal chemicals and proteins. The high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway responds to a number of stressors including osmotic and oxidative stress. This protocol describes a method to detect activation of the Candida albicans ( ...
    Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Assay for Antifungal Drugs
    Authors:  Jinglin L. Xie, Sheena D. Singh-Babak and Leah E. Cowen, date: 10/20/2012, view: 26006, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Assay is widely used to measure the susceptibility of yeasts to antifungal agents. In serial two-fold dilutions, the lowest concentration of antifungal drug that is sufficient to inhibit fungal growth is the MIC. Typically, 50% inhibitory (MIC50) or 80% inhibitory (MIC80) values are ...

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