Cell Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
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0 Q&A 869 Views Sep 5, 2022

Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells are an immunoregulatory CD4+ Foxp3- IL-10high T cell subset with therapeutic potential for various inflammatory diseases. Retroviral (RV) transduction has been a valuable tool in defining the signaling pathways and transcription factors that regulate Tr1 differentiation and suppressive function. This protocol describes a method for RV transduction of naïve CD4+ T cells differentiating under Tr1 conditions, without the use of reagents such as polybrene or RetroNectin. A major advantage of this protocol over others is that it allows for the role of genes of interest on both differentiation and function of Tr1 cells to be interrogated. This is due to the high efficiency of RV transduction combined with the use of an IL10GFP/Foxp3RFP dual reporter mouse model, which enables successfully transduced Tr1 cells to be identified and sorted for functional assays. In addition, this protocol may be utilized for dual/multiple transduction approaches and transduction of other lymphocyte populations, such as CD8+ T cells.

0 Q&A 5045 Views May 20, 2020
Ectopic expression of transcription factor combinations has been recently demonstrated to reprogram differentiated somatic cells towards the dendritic cell (DC) lineage without reversion to a multipotent state. DCs have the ability to induce potent and long-lasting adaptive immune responses. In particular, conventional type 1 DCs (cDC1s) excel on antigen cross-presentation, a critical step for inducing CD8+ T cell cytotoxic responses. The rarity of naturally occurring cDC1s and lack of in vitro methodologies for the generation of pure cDC1 populations strongly hinders the study of cDC1 lineage specification and function. Here, we describe a protocol for the generation of induced DCs (iDCs) by lentiviral-mediated expression of the transcription factors PU.1, IRF8 and BATF3 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. iDCs acquire DC morphology, cDC1 phenotype and transcriptional signatures within 9 days. iDCs generated with this protocol acquire functional ability to respond to inflammatory stimuli, engulf dead cells, process and cross-present antigens to CD8+ T cells. DC reprogramming provides a simple and tractable system to generate high numbers of cDC1-like cells for high content screening, opening new avenues to better understand cDC1 specification and function. In the future, faithful induction of cDC1 fate in fibroblasts may lead to the generation of patient-specific DCs for vaccination.
3 Q&A 17595 Views Nov 5, 2018
Lentiviruses are used very widely to generate stable expression mammalian cell lines. They are used for both gene down-regulation (by using shRNA) or for gene up-regulation (by using ORF of gene of interest). The technique of generating stable cell lines using 3rd generation lentivirus is very robust and it typically takes about 1-2 weeks to get stable expression for most mammalian cell lines. The advantage of using the 3rd generation lentivirus are that are very safe and they are replication incompetent.
0 Q&A 4436 Views Nov 5, 2018
To assess oncogenic potential, classical transformation assays are based on cell line models. However, cell line based models do not reflect the complexity of human tissues. We thus developed an inducible expression system for gene expression in ex vivo human tissues, which maintain native tissue architecture, such as epithelia and stroma. To validate the system, we transduced and expressed known tumor suppressors (p53, p33ING1b), oncoproteins (RasV12, p47ING3), or controls (empty vector, YFP) in ex vivo prostate tissues, then assessed proliferation by immunohistochemistry of markers (H3S10phos). Herein, we describe how to generate lentiviral vectors and particules, successfully transduce human prostate tissues, induce exogenous gene expression, and assess cellular proliferation.
1 Q&A 8280 Views Sep 20, 2018
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) technology is an advanced method of carrying out molecular imaging on live laboratory animals in vivo. This powerful technique is widely-used in studying a variety of biological processes, and it has been an ideal tool in exploring tumor growth and metastatic spread in real-time. This technique ensures the optimal use of laboratory animal resources, particularly the ethical principle of reduction in animal use, given its non-invasive nature, ensuring that ongoing biological processes can be studied over time in the same animal, without the need to euthanize groups of mice at specific time points. In this protocol, the luciferase imaging technique was developed to study the effect of co-inoculating pericytes (contractile, αSMA+ mesenchymal stem cell-like cells, located abluminally in microvessels) on the growth and metastatic spread of ovarian cancers using an aggressive ovarian cancer cell line–OVCAR-5–as an example.
0 Q&A 6746 Views Dec 20, 2017
In this protocol report, we describe a lentiviral gene delivery technique for genetic modification of the rat trophoblast cell lineage. Lentiviral packaged gene constructs can be efficiently and specifically delivered to the trophoblast cell lineage of the blastocyst. The consequences of ‘gain-of-function’ and ‘loss-of-function’ blastocyst manipulations can be evaluated with in vitro outgrowth assays or following transfer to pseudopregnant rats.

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