Cancer Biology


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0 Q&A 2900 Views Dec 20, 2020

Lipid droplets store triacylglycerols (triglycerides) and sterol esters to regulate lipid and energy homeostasis. Triacylglycerol measurement is often performed during the investigation of lipid droplet formation and growth. This protocol describes a reliable method using a fluorometric lipid quantification kit to measure triacylglycerols extracted from HeLa cells, which were treated with oleic acid to trigger the formation of lipid droplets. The lipid quantification kit employs a lipid-binding molecule that emits bright fluorescence only when bound to extracted triacylglycerols, whose content can be quantified by a simple fluorescence readout.

1 Q&A 31867 Views Jul 20, 2017
Intracellular calcium elevation triggers a wide range of cellular responses. Calcium responses can be affected or modulated by membrane receptors mutations, localization, exposure to agonists/antagonists, among others (Burgos et al., 2007; Martínez et al., 2016). Changes in intracellular calcium concentration can be measured using the calcium sensitive fluorescent ratiometric dye fura-2 AM. This method is a high throughput way to measure agonist mediated calcium responses.
1 Q&A 14617 Views Jun 20, 2015
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous intracellular structures whose formation, growth, and maintenance are highly regulated (Wang et al., 2013; Ranall et al., 2011; Goodman, 2009). Lipid metabolism and droplet dynamics are of considerable interest to agriculture, biofuel production, viral pathology, nutrition, and cancer biology (Walther and Farese, 2009; Liu et al., 2010). Accumulation of fatty acids and neutral lipids in nonadipose tissues is cytotoxic (Kourtidis et al., 2009). BODIPY 493/503 (4,4-Difluoro-1,3,5,7,8-Pentamethyl-4-Bora-3a,4a-Diaza-s-Indacene) is the standard dye to study LDs within adipocytes. BODIPY 493/503 contains a nonpolar structure that, upon binding to neutral lipid, emits a green fluorescence signal with a narrow wavelength range, making it an ideal fluorophore for multi-labeling experiments. The hydrophobic nature of the dye molecules promotes rapid entry into the nonpolar environment of LDs (Listenberge and Brown, 2007). Gocze and Freeman showed that the lipid fluorescent variability is significantly lower when using BODIPY493/503 compared to Nile Red, suggesting that it may be more specific for the LD (Gocze and Freeman, 1994). Here, we describe a BODIPY 493/503 assay for the detection of neural fat stores in cultured cells (Figure 1) (Wang et al., 2013).
0 Q&A 16333 Views Jul 20, 2014
The Bone resorption assay provides an easy to use protocol for quantitatively measuring in vitro osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Osteoclasts can be seeded onto the bone slices and formation of resorption pits can be quantified via toluidinblue staining (Scholtysek et al., 2013).
0 Q&A 16731 Views Jun 20, 2014
This assay makes use of the dye Acridine Orange (AO) to determine the stability of lysosomes in living cells upon exposure to a confocal microscope laser.

AO is a lipophilic amine that readily diffuses into cells (Figure 1). Inside the cell it enters the acidic lysosomal compartment where it is protonated and sequestered, shifting its emission spectrum towards a longer wavelength (i.e. red). Once inside the lysosomes, the metachromatic AO sensitizes the lysosomal membrane to photo-oxidation by blue light (Brunk et al., 1997). Upon light-induced loss of the lysosomal pH gradient and subsequent leakage of AO into the cytosol, the emission spectrum of AO shifts from red to green (Figure 2). Hence, loss of lysosomal integrity can be measured as a ‘loss of red dots’ or as a quantitative rise in green fluorescence (Petersen et al., 2010; Kirkegaard et al., 2010; Petersen et al., 2013).


Figure 1. Acridine Orange


Figure 2. Snapshots visualizing the U2OS cells at various steps of the recording procedure (Petersen et al., 2010)
0 Q&A 17996 Views Sep 20, 2013
Repair of double strand break by homologous recombination was examined using U2OS cells or RG37 cells harbouring specific substrate developed by Puget et al. (2005) and Dumay et al. (2006), respectively, to measure the repair of DNA double strand breaks by homologous recombination. The substrate is composed of two inactive copies of the GFP gene. The upstream copy is inactive due to the absence of promoter, the downstream copy present a promoter but is inactivated by the insertion of the sequence coding for the recognition site of the I-SceI enzyme. The substrate is stably expressed in cells after its insertion in the genome and present as a unique copy. The unique DNA double strand break is then induced by the expression of the I-SceI enzyme after cell transfection with a plasmid coding for the I-SceI enzyme.



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