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0 Q&A 594 Views Oct 5, 2023

B cells play a critical role in host defense, producing antibodies in response to microbial infection. An inability to produce an effective antibody response leaves affected individuals prone to serious infection; therefore, proper B-cell development is essential to human health. B-cell development begins in the bone marrow and progresses through various stages until maturation occurs in the spleen. This process involves several sequential, complex events, starting with pre- and pro-B cells, which rearrange the heavy and light chain genes responsible for producing clonally diverse immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules. These cells then differentiate into immature B cells, followed by mature B cells. The bone marrow is a complex ecological niche of supporting stromal cells, extracellular matrix components, macrophages, and hematopoietic precursor cells influencing B-cell development, maturation, and differentiation. Once fully mature, B cells circulate in peripheral lymphoid organs and can respond to antigenic stimuli. As specific cell surface markers are expressed during each stage of B-cell development, researchers use flow cytometry as a powerful tool to evaluate developmental progression. In this protocol, we provide a step-by-step method for bone marrow isolation, cell staining, and data analysis. This tool will help researchers gain a deeper understanding of the progression of B-cell development and provide a pertinent flow gating strategy.

0 Q&A 2802 Views Jul 20, 2021

Single-cell technologies have allowed high-resolution profiling of tissues and thus a deeper understanding of tissue homeostasis and disease heterogeneity. Understanding this heterogeneity can be especially important for tailoring treatments in a patient-specific manner. Here, we detail methods for preparing human cartilage tissue for profiling via cytometry by time-of-flight (cyTOF). We have previously utilized this method to characterize several rare cell populations in cartilage, including cartilage-progenitor cells, inflammation-amplifying cells (Inf-A), and inflammation-dampening cells (Inf-D). Previous bio-protocols have focused on cyTOF staining of PBMCs. Therefore, here we detail the steps unique to the processing of human cartilage and chondrocytes. Briefly, cartilage tissue is digested to release individual chondrocytes, which can be expanded and manipulated in culture. These cells are then collected and fixed in preparation for cyTOF, followed by standard staining and analysis protocols.

0 Q&A 3207 Views Oct 20, 2020
Identifying microscopic mycorrhizal fungal structures in roots, i.e., hyphae, vesicles and arbuscules, requires root staining procedures that are often time consuming and involves chemicals known to present health risks from exposure. By modifying established protocols, our root staining method stains roots using a safe ink- and vinegar-based staining solution, followed by a 2-16 h-long de-staining period. The entire procedure can be completed in less than 6 h (plus up to 16 h de-staining overnight) and roots are suitable for semi-permanent and permanent slide mounting for light microscopy. We tested our method on hundreds of wild-sourced roots from two different plant species: Lycopodiella inundata, a herbaceous clubmoss with tough water-resistant roots, and Sambucus nigra, a temperate woody shrub. Both plants associate with endomycorrhizae, L. inundata predominantly with Mucoromycotina fine root endophytes (MucFRE) and S. nigra with Glomeromycota arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a simple, efficient, repeatable and safe method to detect the presence of fungal structures using light microscopy.
0 Q&A 3805 Views Jul 5, 2020
In malaria, rosetting phenomenon is a condition where a Plasmodium-infected erythrocyte stably adheres to at least an uninfected erythrocyte. This phenomenon that occurs in all species of human malaria parasite is likely to be an immune escape mechanism for the parasite. However, it has been associated with malaria pathogenesis, possibly by facilitating microvasculature occlusion along with direct endothelial cytoadherence by the infected erythrocytes. There are different microscopy-based techniques to visualize rosettes but neither of these techniques has yet to qualify as the official “gold standard” method. We have found that these techniques can be used interchangeably, provided that the conditions of the experiments are properly controlled. Here, we presented three methods as options for rosetting assay, i.e., the unstained wet mount technique, acridine orange based-fluorescence microscopy technique and Giemsa stained wet mount method, with preparation steps that enable consistent performance in rosetting experiments.
1 Q&A 4181 Views Mar 20, 2020
Bone formation occurs during embryogenesis, skeletal growth and during the process of skeletal renewal throughout life. In the process of bone formation, osteoblasts lay down a collagen-containing matrix, termed osteoid, which is gradually hardened by incorporation of mineral crystals. Although osteoblasts can be induced to differentiate and to deposit mineral in culture, this system does not always provide results that reflect the ability of agents to stimulate bone formation in vivo. This protocol describes a rapid and reliable method for testing local administration of agents on bone formation in vivo. In this method, mice are injected with the agent of question for 5 successive days. Fluorochrome labels are injected prior to, and after agents used for testing, and samples are collected and analysed by undecalcified bone histology and histomorphometry. This provides a robust method for assessing the ability of agents to stimulate bone formation, and if a short-term modification is used, can also be used for testing gene responses in bone to the same stimuli.
0 Q&A 4714 Views Jul 5, 2019
Shigella flexneri invades the epithelial cells lining the gut lumen and replicates intracellularly. The specialized Type III Secretion System (T3SS) and its effector proteins, encoded on a large virulence plasmid, assist the bacterium to gain access to the cytosol. Thereafter Shigella disseminates to neighboring cells in an epithelial layer without further extracellular steps. Host cell lysis occurs when these bacteria have extensively replicated in the target cell cytosol. Here we describe a simple method to qualitatively as well as quantitatively study the capacity of Shigella to invade and disseminate within an epithelium by assessing the number and size of plaques representing the dead cells in a monolayer of TC7 cells. This classical protocol follows a simple approach of infecting the monolayers of epithelial cell lines with Shigella and visualizing the dead cells as plaques formed against a stained background.
1 Q&A 13143 Views Dec 5, 2016
In vitro Th17 (α, β T helper cell which produce IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22) differentiation has been routinely used for functional T cells studies. Here we describe a method for Th17 cell differentiation.
1 Q&A 13815 Views Jun 20, 2016
Although it is possible to use a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain to assist in identifying osteoclasts, a separate method is needed to determine the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts. Since osteoclasts leave “pits” after bone matrix resorption (Charles et al., 2014), it is possible to stain pits as a method of measuring osteoclast bone resorption activity. The pit assay protocol enables researchers to stain bony slices that were co-cultured with osteoclasts with toluidine blue in order to allow the visualization, capture, and analysis of osteoclast resorptive activity based on the number, size and depth of pits (Zhou et al., 2015). The pit assay protocol is separated into three sequential stages: Preparation of bone slices (1); preparation of osteoclast precursors (Ross et al., 2006; Teitelbaum et al., 2000) (2), and bone resorption pit assay (3).
2 Q&A 22599 Views Jan 5, 2016
Fluoro-Jade is a fluorescent derivative used for histological staining of degenerating neurons. This technique is simple and sensitive enough to label distal dendrites, axons, axon terminals as well as neuronal bodies. Fluoro-Jade has excitation and emission peak of 480 and 525 nanometer respectively. It can be visualized using a fluorescein/FITC filter. Some reports have demonstrated that Fluoro-Jade can also be useful to detect glial cell death (Anderson et al., 2013; Damjanac et al., 2007).
0 Q&A 16314 Views Jul 20, 2014
The Bone resorption assay provides an easy to use protocol for quantitatively measuring in vitro osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Osteoclasts can be seeded onto the bone slices and formation of resorption pits can be quantified via toluidinblue staining (Scholtysek et al., 2013).



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