Stem Cell


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0 Q&A 6399 Views Apr 5, 2018
Pituitary adenomas are among the more frequent intracranial tumors usually treated with both surgical and pharmacological–based on somatostatin and dopamine agonists–approaches. Although mostly benign tumors, the occurrence of invasive behaviors is often detected resulting in poorer prognosis. The use of primary cultures from human pituitary adenomas represented a significant advancement in the knowledge of the mechanisms of their development and in the definition of the determinants of their pharmacological sensitivity. Moreover, recent studies identified also in pituitary adenomas putative tumor stem cells representing, according to the current hypothesis, the real cellular targets to eradicate most malignancies. In this protocol, we describe the procedure to establish primary cultures from human pituitary adenomas, and how to select, in vitro expand, and phenotypically characterize putative pituitary adenoma stem cells.
0 Q&A 13548 Views Apr 20, 2017
Self-renewal is the ability of cells to replicate themselves at every cell cycle. Throughout self-renewal in normal tissue homeostasis, stem cell number is maintained constant throughout life. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) share this ability with normal tissue stem cells and the sphere formation assay (SFA) is the gold standard assay to assess stem cells (or cancer stem cells) self-renewal potential in vitro. When single cells are plated at low density in stem cell culture medium, only the cells endowed with self-renewal are able to grow in tridimensional clusters usually named spheres. In the recent years, SFA has also been used also to test the effect of several drugs, chemical and natural compounds or microenviromental components on stem cells self-renewal capacity. Here we will illustrate a detailed protocol to assess self-renewal of human melanoma stem cells, growing as melanospheres.
0 Q&A 9067 Views May 5, 2015
Glioma Associated Stem Cells (GASCs) represent a population of non-tumorigenic multipotent stem cells hosted in the microenvironment of human gliomas. In vitro, these cells are able, through the release of exosomes, to increase the biological aggressiveness of glioma-initiating cells. The clinical importance of this finding is supported by the strong prognostic value associated with the GASCs surface immunophenotype thus suggesting that this patient-based approach can provide a groundbreaking method to predict prognosis and to exploit novel strategies that target the tumor stroma (Bourkoula et al., 2014).
0 Q&A 9305 Views Apr 20, 2014
Tumors are comprised of heterogeneous subpopulations that may exhibit differing capacity for differentiation, self-renewal, and tumorigenicity. In vivo lineage-tracing studies are a powerful tool for defining the role of tumor subpopulations in tumor growth and as targets for therapeutic agents. This protocol describes using a neuroblastoma cancer cell line transduced with two different fluorescent proteins (GFP and tdTomato) to track the specific contributions of cells expressing the GCSF receptor (CD114+) or not (CD114-) on tumor growth in vivo.



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