Mammalia

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP) of Cell Type-specific mRNA from Mouse Brain Lysates
    Authors:  Catherine L. Salussolia, Kellen D. Winden and Mustafa Sahin, date: 05/05/2022, view: 414, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Mammalian tissues are highly heterogenous and complex, posing a challenge in understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating protein expression within various tissues. Recent studies have shown that translation at the level of the ribosome is highly regulated, and can vary independently of gene expression observed at a transcriptome level, as

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    Isolation of tdTomato Expressing Inter-follicular Epidermal Melanocytes or Keratinocytes from Mouse Tail Skin
    Authors:  Samuel Pop, Oscar Urtatiz and Catherine D. Van Raamsdonk, date: 04/20/2022, view: 936, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin. It is made up of mostly keratinocytes along with a small number of melanocytes and Langerhans cells. Melanocytes produce a pigment called melanin, which is transferred to the keratinocytes, and protects these cells from damage from UV radiation, as well as generating hair and skin colours. In this

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    Conditional Human BRD4 Knock-In Transgenic Mouse Genotyping and Protein Isoform Detection
    Authors:  Michael Paul Lewis, Shwu-Yuan Wu and Cheng-Ming Chiang, date: 04/05/2022, view: 417, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an acetyl-lysine reader protein and transcriptional regulator implicated in chromatin dynamics and cancer development. Several BRD4 isoforms have been detected in humans with the long isoform (BRD4-L, aa 1-1,362) playing a tumor-suppressive role and a major short isoform (BRD4-S, aa 1-722) having

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    Isolation and Culture of Cranial Neural Crest Cells from the First Branchial Arch of Mice
    Authors:  Hiroki Ueharu, Jingwen Yang, Yoshihiro Komatsu and Yuji Mishina, date: 04/05/2022, view: 445, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Craniofacial anomalies (CFA) are a diverse group of deformities, which affect the growth of the head and face. Dysregulation of cranial neural crest cell (NCC) migration, proliferation, differentiation, and/or cell fate specification have been reported to contribute to CFA. Understanding of the mechanisms through which cranial NCCs contribute

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    In vivo Ca2+ Imaging in Mouse Salivary Glands
    Authors:  Takahiro Takano and David I. Yule, date: 04/05/2022, view: 659, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Changes in intracellular calcium drive exocrine cell activity. In the salivary gland, acetylcholine released from parasympathetic neurons mobilizes endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores in acinar cells, which consequently initiates saliva secretion. However, our understanding of the signaling cascade is mainly based on ex vivo studies

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    Preparation, Characterization, and Cell Uptake of PLGA/PLA-PEG-FA Nanoparticles
    Authors:  Heng Yang, Junsik Sung, Zahra Alghoul and Didier Merlin, date: 04/05/2022, view: 346, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Oral administration of colon-targeting nanoformulations holds many advantages over the systemic delivery of free drugs, or traditional nontargeting formulations in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Currently, the most conventional method for constructing colon-targeting drug delivery systems (DDS) is by integrating the biocompatible

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    A Mouse Infection Model with a Wildtype Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain for the Analysis of Inflammatory Innate Immune Cells
    Authors:  Christa Pfeifhofer-Obermair, Natascha Brigo, Piotr Tymoszuk and Günter Weiss, date: 04/05/2022, view: 330, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium, which causes gastrointestinal disorders in humans, and systemic, typhoid fever-like infections in mice. Our current knowledge regarding the involvement of cellular and humoral immunity in the defense from S. Typhimurium infections is

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    Electrophysiological Measurements of Isolated Blood Vessels
    Authors:  Samuel A Molina, Daniela Maier-Begandt, Brant E Isakson and Michael Koval, date: 03/20/2022, view: 419, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The lumen of blood vessels is covered by endothelial cells, which regulate their permeability to ions and solutes. Endothelial permeability depends on the vascular bed and cell phenotype, and is influenced by different disease states. Most characterization of endothelial permeability has been carried out using isolated cells in culture. While

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    Skeletal Stem Cell Isolation from Cranial Suture Mesenchyme and Maintenance of Stemness in Culture
    Authors:  Takamitsu Maruyama, Hsiao-Man Ivy Yu and Wei Hsu, date: 03/05/2022, view: 559, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Skeletal stem cells residing in the suture mesenchyme are responsible for calvarial development, homeostatic maintenance, and injury-induced repair. These naïve cells exhibit long-term self-renewal, clonal expansion, and multipotency. They possess osteogenic abilities to regenerate bones in a cell-autonomous manner and can directly replace

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    Operant Self-medication for Assessment of Spontaneous Pain Relief and Drug Abuse Liability in Mouse Models of Chronic Pain
    [Abstract]

    The search for safe and efficient chronic pain treatments is dampened by the lack of reliable models that faithfully reproduce current pharmacological treatments for chronic spontaneous pain in humans. Preclinical models often assess the antinociceptive efficacy of non-contingent pharmacological treatments evaluated in the short-term. Here, we

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