Immunology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Quantification of Bacterial Attachment to Tissue Sections
    Authors:  Batya Isaacson, Tehila Hadad, Gilad Bachrach and Ofer Mandelboim, date: 03/05/2018, view: 2860, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Here we describe a method to test bacterial adhesion to paraffin embedded tissue sections. This method allows examining binding of different bacterial strains, transfected with a fluorescent protein reporter plasmid to various tissues, to better understand different mechanisms such as colonization. This assay provides a more physiological context ...
    Lentiviral Knockdown of Transcription Factor STAT1 in Peromyscus leucopus to Assess Its Role in the Restriction of Tick-borne Flaviviruses
    Authors:  Adaeze O. Izuogu and R. Travis Taylor, date: 12/05/2017, view: 4448, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cellular infection with tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) results in activation of the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway and subsequent upregulation of numerous genes termed IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) (Schoggins et al., 2011). Many ISGs function to prevent virus pathogenesis by acting in a broad or specific manner through protein-protein ...
    Histochemical Staining of Collagen and Identification of Its Subtypes by Picrosirius Red Dye in Mouse Reproductive Tissues
    [Abstract] Collagen is one of the foremost components of tissue extracellular matrix (ECM). It provides strength, elasticity and architecture to the tissue enabling it to bear the wear and tear from external factors like physical stress as well as internal stress factors like inflammation or other pathological conditions. During normal pregnancy or pregnancy ...
    Analysis of the Virulence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain CFT073 in the Murine Urinary Tract
    Authors:  Anna Waldhuber, Manoj Puthia, Andreas Wieser, Catharina Svanborg and Thomas Miethke , date: 02/05/2017, view: 5762, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This urinary tract infection model was used to monitor the efficacy of a new virulence factor of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 in vivo. The new virulence factor which we designated TIR-containing protein C (TcpC) blocks Toll-like receptor signaling and the NLRP3 inflammasome signaling cascade by interacting ...
    Flow Cytometry of Lung and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cells from Mice Challenged with Fluorescent Aspergillus Reporter (FLARE) Conidia
    Authors:  Anupam Jhingran, Shinji Kasahara and Tobias M Hohl, date: 09/20/2016, view: 8559, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous fungal pathogen that forms airborne conidia. The process of restricting conidial germination into hyphae by lung leukocytes is critical in determining infectious outcomes. Tracking the outcome of conidia-host cell encounters in vivo is technically challenging and an obstacle to understanding ...
    Identification of Helminth-induced Type 2 CD4+ T Cells and ILC2s
    Authors:  Mario M. Zaiss and Kendle M. Maslowski, date: 06/05/2014, view: 5776, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] After activation, T cells differentiate into different T helper (Th) subsets, namely Th1, Th2, and Th17. These different Th subsets are associated with the production of particular cytokines endowing them with different functions. In immunity against helminth infections the Th2 cell subset plays an important role. Th2 cells typically produce IL-4, ...
    In vitro Analysis for Macrophage Binding and Pro-inflammatory Responses to Candida albicans
    Author:  Mohlopheni J. Marakalala, date: 05/05/2014, view: 5830, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Macrophage recognition of Candida albicans (C. albicans) is facilitated by pattern recognition receptors that interact with the fungal pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Dectin-1 is the major macrophage receptor that is known to recognize fungal Beta-glucans leading to induction of various immune responses. This ...
    IFN-α Inhibition Assay in vitro
    Author:  Kathrin Gibbert, date: 06/20/2013, view: 6562, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] During viral infections Interferon-α (IFN-α) is expressed by infected host cells. IFN-α binds to its receptor (IFNAR1/2), which leads to the activation of downstream signaling via JAK-STAT. This signaling cascade results in the expression of several hundred different genes, so called interferon-stimulated gene, which lead to an antiviral state of ...
    Determination of Toxoplasma gondii Replication in Naïve and Activated Macrophages
    Authors:  Emma Iaconetti, Brian Lynch, Nathaniel Kim and Dana G. Mordue, date: 11/20/2012, view: 9174, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes the disease toxoplasmosis. Chronic infection is established through the formation of tissue cysts predominantly in cardiac and neurologic tissues. A defining characteristic of T. gondii is its ability to evade the host’s immune defenses; specifically, ...



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