Protocols in Current Issue
    Assessing Membrane Fluidity and Visualizing Fluid Membrane Domains in Bacteria Using Fluorescent Membrane Dyes
    Authors:  Michaela Wenzel, Norbert O. E. Vischer, Henrik Strahl and Leendert W. Hamoen, date: 10/20/2018, view: 1305, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Membrane fluidity is a key parameter of bacterial membranes that undergoes quick adaptation in response to environmental challenges and has recently emerged as an important factor in the antibacterial mechanism of membrane-targeting antibiotics. The specific level of membrane fluidity is not uniform across the bacterial cell membrane. Rather, ...
    Detection of Apoptosis-like Cell Death in Ustilago maydis by Annexin V-FITC Staining
    Authors:  Dibya Mukherjee, Aroni Mitra and Anupama Ghosh, date: 08/05/2018, view: 1380, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Programmed cell death (PCD) guides the transition between key developmental stages in many organisms. PCD also remains an important fate for many organisms upon exposure to different stress conditions. Therefore, an insight into the progression of PCD during the execution of a biological phenomenon can yield significant details of the underlying ...
    Direct Visualization of the Multicopy Chromosomes in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942
    Authors:  Ryudo Ohbayashi, Hirofumi Yoshikawa and Satoru Watanabe, date: 08/05/2018, view: 1184, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic organisms that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. The fresh water cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a model organism for the study of photosynthesis and gene regulation, and for biotechnological applications. Besides several freshwater cyanobacteria, S. elongatus 7942 also contains ...
    Phototaxis Assays of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 at Macroscopic and Microscopic Scales
    Authors:  Annik Jakob, Nils Schuergers and Annegret Wilde, date: 06/05/2017, view: 3742, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Phototaxis is a mechanism that allows cyanobacteria to respond to fluctuations in the quality and quantity of illumination by moving either towards or away from a light source. Phototactic movement on low concentration agar or agarose plates can be analyzed at macroscopic and microscopic scales representing group behavior and single cell motility, ...
    Fluorescence in situ Localization of Gene Expression Using a lacZ Reporter in the Heterocyst-forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis
    Authors:  Brenda S. Pratte and Teresa Thiel, date: 01/05/2017, view: 4091, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] One of the most successful fluorescent proteins, used as a reporter of gene expression in many bacterial, plant and animals, is green fluorescent protein and its modified forms, which also function well in cyanobacteria. However, these fluorescent proteins do not allow rapid and economical quantitation of the reporter gene product, as does the ...
    Quantification of Respiratory Activity in Biofilms
    Authors:  Cláudia N. H. Marques and Scott A. Craver, date: 09/20/2015, view: 5642, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Bacteria live mostly as biofilms, not as planktonic cell populations. Bacterial cells living as biofilms are known to be in different physiological status. Persister cells are one of such physiological conditions and they are recognized as to be a stochastically produced sub-population of non-growing bacterial cells. The following protocol ...
    Gram Stain for Intestinal Bacteria
    Authors:  Luise Goroncy and Robert Zeiser, date: 03/20/2015, view: 6580, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] With this protocol you can perform a gram stain in paraffin embedded tissue sections.
    Neutrophil Isolation from the Intestines
    Authors:  Luise Goroncy and Robert Zeiser, date: 03/20/2015, view: 6323, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol provides the possibility to isolate leukocytes including neutrophils out of intestinal tissues to use the received cells in further experiments of interest.
    Protocol for Biotin Bioassay-based Cross Feeding
    Authors:  Youjun Feng, Jie Xu, Huimin Zhang, Zeliang Chen and Swaminath Srinivas, date: 09/20/2014, view: 4612, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Biotin bioassay-based cross-feeding experiments were performed to elucidate the effect on biotin production by bioRbme expression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) (Feng et al., 2013). The indicator strain used here is the biotin auxotrophic strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli), ...
    Immunolabeling of Proteins in situ in Escherichia coli K12 Strains
    Authors:  Nienke Buddelmeijer, Mirjam Aarsman and Tanneke den Blaauwen, date: 08/05/2013, view: 7374, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol was developed to label proteins in bacterial cells with antibodies conjugated to a fluorophore for fluorescence microscopy imaging. The procedure is optimized to minimize morphological changes and also to minimize the amount of antibodies needed for the staining. The protocol can also be used with primary antibodies conjugated to a ...

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