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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Electron Tomography to Study the Three-dimensional Structure of Plasmodesmata in Plant Tissues–from High Pressure Freezing Preparation to Ultrathin Section Collection
    Authors:  William J. Nicolas, Emmanuelle Bayer and Lysiane Brocard, date: 01/05/2018, view: 385, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Plasmodesmata (PD) are nanometric (~20 nm wide) membrane lined pores encased in the cell walls of the adjacent plant cells. They allow the cells to exchange all types of molecules ranging from nutrients like sugar, hormones, to RNAs and various proteins. Unfortunately, they are also hijacked by phyto-viruses, enabling them to spread from ...
    Preparation of Onion Epidermal Cell Walls for Imaging by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
    Authors:  Tian Zhang and Daniel J. Cosgrove, date: 12/20/2017, view: 625, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The growing plant cell wall is comprised of long, thin cellulose microfibrils embedded in a hydrated matrix of polysaccharides and glycoproteins. These components are typically constructed in layers (lamellae) on the inner surface of the cell wall, i.e., between the existing wall and the plasma membrane. The organization of these ...
    Automatic Leaf Epidermis Assessment Using Fourier Descriptors in Texture Images
    [Abstract] The identification of plant species is not a trivial task, since it is carried out by experts and depends on the presence of fruits, flowers and leaves. However, fruits and flowers are not available throughout the year, while leaves are accessible most of the year. In order to assist the specialized work of species identification, methods of ...
    Histochemical Preparations to Depict the Structure of Cauliflower Leaf Hydathodes
    Authors:  Aude Cerutti, Marie-Christine Auriac, Laurent D. Noël and Alain Jauneau, date: 10/20/2017, view: 1291, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Hydathodes are plant organs present on leaf margins of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. Both anatomy and physiology of hydathodes are poorly documented. We have recently reported on the anatomy of cauliflower and Arabidopsis thaliana hydathodes and on their infection by the vascular pathogenic bacterium ...
    Capturing Z-stacked Confocal Images of Living Bacteria Entering Hydathode Pores of Cauliflower
    Authors:  Aude Cerutti and Alain Jauneau, date: 10/20/2017, view: 1286, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The present protocol to visualize living bacteria at the pore level of cauliflower hydathodes is simple and trained users in confocal microscopy can execute it successfully. It can be easily adapted to capture images with other plant-microorganism interactions at the leaf surface and should be useful to obtain important information on pore and ...
    Scanning Electron Microscopy of Motile Male Gametes of Land Plants
    Authors:  Karen Sue Renzaglia, Renee A. Lopez and Steven J. Schmitt, date: 10/05/2017, view: 883, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The only motile cells produced in land plants are male gametes (spermatozoids), which are reduced to non-flagellated cells in flowering plants and most gymnosperms. Although a coiled architecture is universal, the complexity of land plant flagellated cells varies from biflagellated in bryophytes to thousands of flagella per gametes in the seed ...
    Transmission Electron Microscopy of Centrioles, Basal Bodies and Flagella in Motile Male Gametes of Land Plants
    [Abstract] Motile male gametes (spermatozoids) of land plants are coiled and contain a modified and precisely organized complement of organelles that includes a locomotory apparatus with two to thousands of flagella. Each flagellum is generated from a basal body that originates de novo as a centriole in spermatogenous cell lineages. Much of what is ...
    Quantification of Membrane Damage/Cell Death Using Evan’s Blue Staining Technique
    [Abstract] Membrane damage is a hallmark of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. The membrane determines the ability of a cell to sustain altered environmental conditions and hence can be used as a biomarker to assess stress-induced cell damage or death. We present an easy, quick, cost-effective, staining and spectrophotometric method to assess membrane ...
    Phototaxis Assay for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Authors:  Noriko Ueki and Ken-ichi Wakabayashi, date: 06/20/2017, view: 1956, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Phototaxis is a behavior in which organisms move toward or away from the light source (positive or negative phototaxis, respectively). It is crucial for phototrophic microorganisms to inhabit under proper light conditions for phototaxis. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii rapidly changes its swimming direction upon light ...
    Analysis of 3D Cellular Organization of Fixed Plant Tissues Using a User-guided Platform for Image Segmentation
    Authors:  Ethel Mendocilla Sato and Célia Baroux, date: 06/20/2017, view: 1786, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The advent of non-invasive, high-resolution microscopy imaging techniques and computational pipelines for high-throughput image processing has contributed to gain insights in plant organ morphogenesis at the cellular level. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) allows the generation of three dimensional images constituted of serial optical ...