Microbiology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Unbiased Screening of Activated Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) in Tumor Extracts Using a Mouse Phospho-RTK Array Kit
    Authors:  Julian Naipauer, Lucas E. Cavallin and Enrique A. Mesri, date: 04/20/2019, view: 381, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) herpesvirus (KSHV) is a virus that causes KS, an angiogenic AIDS-associated spindle-cell neoplasm, by activating host oncogenic signaling cascades through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Many host signaling cascades co-opted by KSHV including PI3K/AKT/mTORC, NFkB and Notch are critical for cell-specific mechanisms of ...
    Eimeria vermiformis Infection Model of Murine Small Intestine
    [Abstract] Eimeria vermiformis is a tissue specific, intracellular protozoan that infects the murine small intestinal epithelia, which has been widely used as a coccidian model to study mucosal immunology. This mouse infection model is valuable to investigate the mechanisms of host protection against primary and secondary infection in the small ...
    H1N1 Virus Production and Infection
    Authors:  Binbin Zhao, Jiaoyu Shan, Rui Xiong, Ke Xu and Bin Li, date: 10/20/2018, view: 995, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Influenza A virus is a member of orthomyxoviridae family causing wide-spread infections in human respiratory tract. Mouse infection model is widely used in antiviral research and pathogenesis study against influenza A virus. Here, we report a protocol in infected mice with different virus doses and strains to explore how an inhibitor of ...
    HCV Reporter System (Viral Infection-Activated Split-Intein-Mediated Reporter System) for Testing Virus Cell-to-cell Transmission ex-vivo
    Authors:  Fanfan Zhao, Ting Zhao, Libin Deng, Dawei Lv, Xiaolong Zhang, Xiaoyu Pan, Jun Xu and Gang Long, date: 08/05/2018, view: 1359, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Hepatitis C virus (HCV) spread involves two distinct entry pathways: cell-free transmission and cell-to-cell transmission. Cell-to-cell transmission is not only an efficient way for viruses to spread but also an effective method for escaping neutralizing antibodies. We adapted the viral infection-activated split-intein-mediated reporter system ...
    Assessing the Efficacy of Small Molecule Inhibitors in a Mouse Model of Persistent Norovirus Infection
    Authors:  Jana Van Dycke, Johan Neyts and Joana Rocha-Pereira, date: 05/05/2018, view: 1880, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Human norovirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, resulting in estimated mortality of ~210,000 each year, of whom most are children under the age of five. However, norovirus can infect people of all age groups. There is a risk of prolonged infection in children, the elderly and patients who are immunocompromised. To ...
    Detection of Protein Interactions in the Cytoplasm and Periplasm of Escherichia coli by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer
    Authors:  Nils Y. Meiresonne, Svetlana Alexeeva, René van der Ploeg and Tanneke den Blaauwen, date: 01/20/2018, view: 3475, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol was developed to qualitatively and quantitatively detect protein-protein interactions in Escherichia coli by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). The described assay allows for the previously impossible in vivo screening of periplasmic protein-protein interactions. In FRET, excitation of a donor fluorescent ...
    Infection of Caenorhabditis elegans with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus via Microinjection
    Authors:  Adam Martin, Emily A. Rex, Takao Ishidate, Rueyling Lin and Don B. Gammon, date: 11/20/2017, view: 3057, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Over the past 15 years, the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans has become an important model system for exploring eukaryotic innate immunity to bacterial and fungal pathogens. More recently, infection models using either natural or non-natural nematode viruses have also been established in C. elegans. These models offer ...
    Quantification of Densities of Bacterial Endosymbionts of Insects by Real-time PCR
    Author:  Daisuke Kageyama, date: 10/05/2017, view: 3804, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Increased attention has been paid to the endosymbiotic bacteria of insects. Because most insect endosymbionts are uncultivable, quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a practical and convenient method to quantify endosymbiont titers. Here we report a protocol for real-time qPCR based on SYBR Green I fluorescence as well as some tips to prevent possible ...
    A Protocol of Using White/Red Color Assay to Measure Amyloid-induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Authors:  Vidhya Bharathi, Amandeep Girdhar and Basant K Patel, date: 08/05/2017, view: 4241, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) harboring ade1 or ade2 mutations manifest red colony color phenotype on rich yeast medium YPD. In these mutants, intermediate metabolites of adenine biosynthesis pathway are accumulated. Accumulated intermediates, in the presence of reduced glutathione, are ...
    Vaginal HSV-2 Infection and Tissue Analysis
    Authors:  Marie Beck Iversen, Søren Riis Paludan and Christian Kanstrup Holm, date: 07/05/2017, view: 4243, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The vaginal murine HSV-2 infection model is very useful in studying mucosal immunity against HSV-2 (Overall et al., 1975; Renis et al., 1976; Parr and Parr, 2003). Histologically, the vagina of Depo-Provera-treated mice is lined by a single layer of mucus secreting columnar epithelial cells overlying two to three layers of ...



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