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0 Q&A 280 Views Dec 20, 2022

Atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by thickening of the arteries due to lipid deposition, is the major contributor to and hallmark of cardiovascular disease. Although great progress has been made in lowering the lipid plaques in patients, the conventional therapies fail to address the needs of those that are intolerant or non-responsive to the treatment. Therefore, additional novel therapeutic approaches are warranted. We have previously shown that increasing the cellular amounts of microRNA-30c (miR-30c) with the aid of viral vectors or liposomes can successfully reduce plasma cholesterol and atherosclerosis in mice. To avoid the use of viruses and liposomes, we have developed new methods to synthesize novel miR-30c analogs with increasing potency and efficacy, including 2’-O-methyl (2’OMe), 2’-fluoro (2’F), pseudouridine (ᴪ), phosphorothioate (PS), and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc). The discovery of these modifications has profoundly impacted the modern RNA therapeutics, as evidenced by their increased nuclease stability and reduction in immune responses. We show that modifications on the passenger strand of miR-30c not only stabilize the duplex but also aid in a more readily uptake by the cells without the aid of viral vectors or lipid emulsions. After uptake, the analogs with PS linkages and GalNAc-modified ribonucleotides significantly reduce the secretion of apolipoprotein B (ApoB) without affecting apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells. We envision an enormous potential for these modified miR-30c analogs in therapeutic intervention for treating cardiovascular diseases.

1 Q&A 17537 Views May 5, 2017
microRNA (miRNA) directly associates with its target transcripts (mRNA). This protocol describes a method for detection of direct interaction between miRNA and mRNA. The result of interaction helps screening the specific target mRNAs for a miRNA.
0 Q&A 10802 Views Apr 20, 2016
Although temporal regulation of gene expression during the course of infection is known to be critical for determining the outcome of host-virus interactions, systematic temporal analysis of the miRNA targetomes during productive viral infection has been technically challenging due to the large range of miRNA-mRNA cross-talks at the host-virus interface. High-confidence quantifying models of the suppression efficacy in targeting sites by integrating bioinformatics with Argonaute-crosslinking and immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (AGO-CLIP-seq) (Chi et al., 2009) data have been poorly developed. To accurately identify miRNA target sites and calculate the targeting efficacy of miRNA-target interactions, we developed a new bioinformatic quantitation method, AGO-CLIP-seq enrichment (ACE)-scoring algorithm (Kim et al., 2015). Inclusion of the uninfected control in our AGO-CLIP-seq analysis can significantly improve the accuracy of authentic target site identification for viral or human miRNAs and extract physiologically significant changes during productive human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection using our ACE-scoring method. Thus, we suggest that our new ACE-scoring-based methodology can be applied to various miRNA targetome studies, which will be performed in other kinds of temporal contexts, such as developmental stages, immune stimulation by cytokines or pathogens, and lytic infection by other viruses.

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