Cancer Biology


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0 Q&A 5671 Views Jun 20, 2019
Protein analysis in bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma (MM) has been limited by the low concentration of proteins obtained after CD138+ cell selection. A novel approach based on capillary nano-immunoassay could make it possible to quantify dozens of proteins from each CD138+ purified MM sample in an automated manner. Up to now, the knowledge of protein level in those cells was limited because a relatively small quantity of sample is available after the diagnostic procedure. Moreover, the sample often is required for nucleic acids analysis. We have developed the procedure for obtaining proteins from bone marrow samples preserved in RLT+ buffer, and we have successfully applied this approach for the quantification of proteins in the setting of patients with MM. Proteins are extracted from RLT+ buffer, the content is quantified by total protein assay with WES machine and finally, the particular protein expression level is evaluated using specific antibodies by capillary nano-immunoassay with WES machine. The present protocol enables us to quantify many proteins from a limited amount of sample, without losing the opportunity to obtain nucleic acids at the same time. Proteins are quantified automatically in an assay with a low probability of human errors, which makes it a useful tool for biomarkers development.
0 Q&A 8011 Views Apr 5, 2018
Human centromeres are composed of large tandem arrays of repetitive alpha satellite DNA, which are often sites of aberrant rearrangement in cancers (Mitelman et al., 1997; Padilla-Nash et al., 2001). To date, annotation of the human centromere repetitive sequences remains incomplete, greatly hindering in-depth functional studies of these regions essential for chromosome segregation. In order to monitor sister chromatid exchange happening at the centromere (C-SCE) due to recombination and mutagenic events, I have applied the Chromosome-Orientation Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (CO-FISH) technique to centromeres (Cen-CO-FISH) in human cells. This hybridization-based method involves (1) the incorporation of nucleotide analogs through a single round of replication, (2) enzymatic digestion of the newly synthesized DNA strand and (3) subsequent hybridization of single-stranded probes, in absence of a denaturation step. The resulting signal allows to differentially label each sister chromatid based on the 5’-3’ directionality of the DNA and to score aberrant staining patterns indicative of C-SCE. The Cen-CO-FISH method applied to human centromeres revealed that human centromeres indeed undergo recombination in cycling cells resulting in C-SCE, and centromere instability is enhanced in cancer cell lines and primary cells undergoing senescence (Giunta and Funabiki, 2017). Here, I present the detailed protocol of the preparation, experimental procedure and data acquisition for the Cen-CO-FISH method in human cells. It also includes a conceptual overview of the technique, with examples of representative images and scoring guidelines. The Cen-CO-FISH represents a valuable tool to facilitate exploration of centromere repeats.

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