Cell Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 8419 Views Jul 20, 2018
After recognizing extracellular bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-CD14 signaling complex initiates two distinct signaling pathways–one from the plasma membrane and the other from the signaling endosomes (Kagan et al., 2008). Understanding the early stages of TLR4 signal transduction therefore requires a robust and quantitative method to measure LPS-triggered TLR4 and CD14 receptor endocytosis, one of the earliest events of LPS detection. Here, we describe a flow cytometry-based method that we used recently to study the role of the ion channel TRPM7 in TLR4 endocytosis (Schappe et al., 2018). The assay relies on stimulating the cells with LPS and measuring the cell surface levels of TLR4 (or CD14) at various time points using flow cytometry. Although we detail the method specifically for TLR4 and CD14 from murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, it can be readily adapted to evaluate receptor endocytosis in a variety of other signaling contexts.
0 Q&A 22525 Views Oct 5, 2017
Lysosomes are the terminal end of the endocytic pathway having acidic environment required for active hydrolases that degrade the cargo delivered to these compartments. This process of cargo delivery and degradation by endo-lysosomes is a tightly regulated process and important for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Cargos like EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor), Dil-LDL (3,3’-Dioctadecylindocarbocyanine-Low Density Lipoprotein), Dextran, DQ-BSA (Dye Quenched-Bovine Serum Albumin) etc., are routinely used by researchers to analyze the role of various proteins in endocytic pathway. Trafficking of DQ-BSA in cells depleted of or over-expressing the gene of interest is a useful assay for identifying the role of various proteins in endocytic trafficking pathway. The protocol describes the DQ-Red BSA trafficking assay that can be used to study endocytic trafficking in various cell types.
0 Q&A 10361 Views Dec 20, 2013
During viral infection to host cells, several viruses undergo the process of endocytosis and pH-dependent fusion. By fusion of viral membrane with host cellular membrane, the viral core invades to host cytoplasm. A part of monoclonal antibodies against viral membrane protein have potential to inhibit the viral fusion step. Here we describe in vitro influenza virus-cell fusion inhibition assay. The infected cells expressing viral membrane protein, such as hemagglutinin (HA), on cellular surface are incubated with monoclonal antibodies targeting viral membrane protein. Then the cells are incubated under low pH condition. If the antibody does not inhibit the fusion step, we can see multinucleated giant cells.
0 Q&A 16860 Views Nov 20, 2013
Antigen uptake by dendritic cells is the first key step towards induction of antigen-specific T-cell responses. This flow cytometry-based protocol describes the analysis of dendritic cell uptake of soluble antigens through two different mechanisms: non-specific macropinocytosis (using Lucifer Yelloy CH), and receptor-mediated endocytosis (using DQTM Ovalbumin). The protocol is generated based on data presented in Olivar et al. (2013).
0 Q&A 17982 Views Aug 5, 2013
The following endocytosis assay has been optimized to assess EGF-stimulated EGFR endocytosis; but could be modified to assess other ligand-stimulated endocytosis of plasma membrane receptors (for which fluorochrome-conjugated ligands are available to track their receptor internalization). In brief, cells are treated with fluorescent EGF at 4 °C to allow binding to the receptor, but not internalization; then, endocytosis is allowed at 37 °C for different timepoints. For the setting up of this protocol we are really indebted to Dr. Letizia Lanzetti (Lanzetti et al., 2000).

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