Molecular Biology


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0 Q&A 1488 Views Mar 20, 2022

Phytophthora sojae is a model species for the study of plant pathogenic oomycetes. The initial research on gene function using Phytophthora was mainly based on gene silencing technology. Recently, the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology was successfully established in P. sojae and widely used in oomycetes. In this protocol, we describe the operating procedures for the use of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing technology and PEG-mediated stable transformation of P. sojae protoplasts. Two plasmids were co-transformed into P. sojae: pYF515 expressing Cas9 and the single guide RNA, and the homologous replacement vector of the candidate gene. Finally, the ORF of candidate gene were replaced with the ORF of the entire hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (HPH), to achieve precise knockout.

0 Q&A 2026 Views Sep 20, 2021

Ascidian embryos are powerful models for functional genomics, in particular, due to the ease of generating a large number of transgenic embryos by electroporation. In addition, the small size of their genome makes them an attractive model for studying cis-regulatory elements that control gene expression during embryonic development. Here, I describe the adaptation of the seminal method developed 25 years ago in Ciona robusta for en masse DNA electroporation for in vivo transcription to additional species belonging to three genera. It is likely that similar optimizations would make electroporation successful in other ascidian species, where in vitro fertilization can be performed on a large number of eggs.

0 Q&A 2689 Views Aug 5, 2021

Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating soil-borne bacterial pathogen that causes disease in multiple host plants worldwide. Typical assays to measure virulence of R. solanacearum in laboratory conditions rely on soil-drenching inoculation followed by observation and scoring of disease symptoms. Here, we describe a novel inoculation protocol to analyze the replication of R. solanacearum upon infiltration into the leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, in which gene expression has been altered using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The protocol includes five major steps: 1) growth of N. benthamiana plants; 2) infiltration of A. tumefaciens; 3) R. solanacearum inoculation; 4) sample collection and bacterial quantitation; 5) data analysis and representation. The transient gene expression or gene silencing prior to R. solanacearum inoculation provides a straightforward way to perform genetic analysis of plant functions involved in the interaction between pathogen and host, using the appropriate combination of A. tumefaciens and R. solanacearum strains, with high sensitivity and accuracy provided by the quantitation of bacterial numbers in plant tissues.

0 Q&A 2966 Views Jan 20, 2021
This protocol describes the generation of protoplasts from protonemal tissue of the moss Physcomitrium patens (syn. Physcomitrella patens), using Cellulase ONOZUKA R10 and Macerozyme R10, followed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) mediated transformation. The protonemal tissue grown in liquid suspension was harvested and treated with enzyme cocktails mix of 1.5% Cellulase ONOZUKA R10 and 0.5% Macerozyme R10 to generate 1,8 million protoplasts within 3 h.
1 Q&A 3830 Views Nov 20, 2020

Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is a popular herb with high economic value and is currently threatened by a severe oomycete disease. An efficient transformation method is a prerequisite for gene functional analysis to accelerate molecular breeding and deploy effective disease management strategies, and breeding through genetic engineering. Here we present a detailed protocol for a highly efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for sweet basil, which was established based on a previously reported method by other researchers, with modifications on several aspects, including growth of sweet basil, age of plants used for explants, preparation and concentration of Agrobacteria. This protocol allows researchers in academia and agroindustry to generate transgenic sweet basil plants in an easy, quick and highly reproducible manner. In addition, this protocol may be applicable to transform other species within the genus Ocimum.

0 Q&A 3501 Views Sep 5, 2019
The ability to achieve nuclear or chloroplast transformation in plants has been a long standing goal, especially in microalgae research. Over past years there has been only little success, but transient and stable nuclear transformation has been achieved in multiple species. Our newly developed method allows for relatively simple transformation of Cyanidioschizon merolae in both nuclear and chloroplast genome by means of homologous recombination between the genome and a transformation vector. The use of chloramphenicol resistance gene as the selectable marker allows for plate-based efficient selection of mutant colonies. Overall, the method allows the generation of mutant strains within 6 months.
0 Q&A 2974 Views Sep 5, 2019
Debaryomyces hansenii is one of the most osmotolerant and halotolerant yeasts. Further, its association with traditional cheese and meat products imparting special flavors to these products project this yeast with enormous biotechnological potential in the agrofood sector. However, lack of an efficient transformation system in D. hansenii still direct the complementation based assay in S. cerevisiae mutants for functional analysis of D. hansenii genes. Here, we have described the development of an efficient transformation system for D. hansenii that is based on a histidine auxotrophic recipient strain, DBH9 (generated by UV induced random mutagenesis), and the DhHIS4 gene as the selectable marker (Minhas et al., 2009). Moreover, the same method has also been employed for gene disruption in D. hansenii by homologous recombination.
0 Q&A 3002 Views Aug 20, 2019
For natural transformation to occur, bacterial cells must first develop a programmed physiological state called competence. Competence in Bacillus subtilis, which occurs only in a fraction of cells, is a transient stress response that allows cells to take up DNA from the environment. During natural chromosomal transformation, the internalized linear single-stranded (ss) DNA recombines with the identical (homologous) or partially identical (homeologous) sequence of the resident duplex. The length of the integrated DNA, which can be measured, depends on the percentage of sequence divergence between the donor (internalized) and the recipient (chromosomal) DNAs.

The following protocol describes how to induce the development of competence in B. subtilis cells, how to transform them with donor DNAs representing different percentages of sequence divergence compared with the recipient chromosomal DNA, how to calculate the chromosomal transformation efficiency for each of them, and how to amplify the chromosomal DNA from the transformants in order to measure the length in base pairs (bp) of the integrated donor DNA.
0 Q&A 7067 Views Dec 5, 2018
Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) is a model Gram-positive organism used to study a variety of physiological states and stress responses, one of which is the development of competence. Competence refers to the physiological state of a cell which allows it to be transformed naturally. Through induction of competence, the efficiency of natural transformation can be quantified by plating colony forming units (CFU) and transforming units (TFU). Here we describe a protocol for quantifying relative transformability using B. subtilis.
0 Q&A 6251 Views Jul 5, 2018
Natural competence can be activated in Lactoccocus lactis subsp lactis and cremoris upon overexpression of ComX, a master regulator of bacterial competence. Herein, we demonstrate a method to activate bacterial competence by regulating the expression of the comX gene by using a nisin-inducible promoter in an L. lactis strain harboring either a chromosomal or plasmid-encoded copy of nisRK. Addition of moderate concentrations of the inducer nisin resulted in concomitant moderate levels of ComX, which led to an optimal transformation rate (1.0 x 10-6 transformants/total cell number/g plasmid DNA). Here, a detailed description of the optimized protocol for competence induction is presented.



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