Molecular Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 328 Views Mar 20, 2024

Erwinia persicina is a gram-negative bacterium that causes diseases in plants. Recently, E. persicina BST187 was shown to exhibit broad-spectrum antibacterial activity due to its inhibitory effects on bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase, demonstrating promising potential as a biological control agent. However, the lack of suitable genetic manipulation techniques limits its exploitation and industrial application. Here, we developed an efficient transformation system for E. persicina. Using pET28a as the starting vector, the expression cassette of the red fluorescent protein–encoding gene with the strong promoter J23119 was constructed and transformed into BST187 competent cells to verify the overexpression system. Moreover, suicide plasmid–mediated genome editing systems was developed, and lacZ was knocked out of BST187 genome by parental conjugation transfer using the recombinant suicide vector pKNOCK-sacB-km-lacZ. Therefore, both the transformation and suicide plasmid–mediated genome editing system will greatly facilitate genetic manipulations in E. persicina and promote its development and application.

Key features

• Our studies establish a genetic manipulation system for Erwinia persicina, providing a versatile tool for studying the gene function of non-model microorganisms.

• Requires approximately 6–10 days to complete modification of a chromosome locus.

Graphical overview

0 Q&A 385 Views Sep 5, 2023

Magnaporthe oryzae is a filamentous fungus responsible for the detrimental rice blast disease afflicting rice crops worldwide. For years, M. oryzae has served as an excellent model organism to study plant pathogen interactions due to its sequenced genome, its amenability to functional genetics, and its capacity to be tracked in laboratory settings. As such, techniques to genetically manipulate M. oryzae for gene deletion range from genome editing via CRISPR-Cas9 to gene replacement through homologous recombination. This protocol focuses on detailing how to perform gene replacement in the model organism, M. oryzae, through a split marker method. This technique relies on replacing the open reading frame of a gene of interest with a gene conferring resistance to a specific selectable chemical, disrupting the transcription of the gene of interest and generating a knockout mutant M. oryzae strain.

Key features

• Comprehensive overview of primer design, PEG-mediated protoplast transformation, and fungal DNA extraction for screening.

Graphical overview

0 Q&A 316 Views Aug 5, 2023

The study of genes and their products is an essential prerequisite for fundamental research. Characterization can be achieved by analyzing mutants or overexpression lines or by studying the localization and substrate specificities of the resulting proteins. However, functional analysis of specific proteins in complex eukaryotic organisms can be challenging. To overcome this, the use of heterologous systems to express genes and analyze the resulting proteins can save time and effort. Yeast is a preferred heterologous model organism: it is easy to transform, and tools for genomics, engineering, and metabolomics are already available. Here, we describe a well-established and simple method to analyze the activity of plant monosaccharide transporters in the baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a simple growth complementation assay. We used the famous hexose-transport-deficient yeast strain EBY.VW4000 to express candidate plant monosaccharide transporters and analyzed their transport activity. This assay does not require any radioactive labeling of substrates and can be easily extended for quantitative analysis using growth curves or by analyzing the transport rates of fluorescent substrates like the glucose analog 2-NBDG. Finally, to further simplify the cloning of potential candidate transporters, we provide level 0 modular cloning (MoClo) modules for efficient and simple Golden Gate cloning. This approach provides a convenient tool for the functional analysis of plant monosaccharide transporters in yeast.

Key features

• Comprehensive, simple protocol for analysis of plant monosaccharide transporters in yeast

• Includes optional MoClo parts for cloning with Golden Gate method

• Includes protocol for the production and transformation of competent yeast cells

Does not require hazardous solutions, radiolabeled substrates, or specialized equipment

0 Q&A 1303 Views May 20, 2023

Cotton is a significant industrial crop, playing an essential role in the global economy that suffers several setbacks due to biotic and abiotic adversities. Despite such problems, biotechnological advances in cotton are limited because of genetic transformation and regeneration limitations. Here, we present a detailed protocol optimized based on previously published papers, along with our modifications. These involve changes in Agrobacterium concentration, co-cultivation time and temperature, hormones used for regeneration, media manipulation for embryogenic callus production, and efficient rescue of deformed embryos. Further, this protocol has been used in genetic studies on biotic and abiotic stress in cotton. This protocol assures a reproducible stable transgenic cotton development procedure via somatic embryogenesis that can be used by researchers worldwide.

0 Q&A 1868 Views Mar 20, 2022

Phytophthora sojae is a model species for the study of plant pathogenic oomycetes. The initial research on gene function using Phytophthora was mainly based on gene silencing technology. Recently, the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology was successfully established in P. sojae and widely used in oomycetes. In this protocol, we describe the operating procedures for the use of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing technology and PEG-mediated stable transformation of P. sojae protoplasts. Two plasmids were co-transformed into P. sojae: pYF515 expressing Cas9 and the single guide RNA, and the homologous replacement vector of the candidate gene. Finally, the ORF of candidate gene were replaced with the ORF of the entire hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (HPH), to achieve precise knockout.

0 Q&A 2145 Views Sep 20, 2021

Ascidian embryos are powerful models for functional genomics, in particular, due to the ease of generating a large number of transgenic embryos by electroporation. In addition, the small size of their genome makes them an attractive model for studying cis-regulatory elements that control gene expression during embryonic development. Here, I describe the adaptation of the seminal method developed 25 years ago in Ciona robusta for en masse DNA electroporation for in vivo transcription to additional species belonging to three genera. It is likely that similar optimizations would make electroporation successful in other ascidian species, where in vitro fertilization can be performed on a large number of eggs.

0 Q&A 3014 Views Aug 5, 2021

Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating soil-borne bacterial pathogen that causes disease in multiple host plants worldwide. Typical assays to measure virulence of R. solanacearum in laboratory conditions rely on soil-drenching inoculation followed by observation and scoring of disease symptoms. Here, we describe a novel inoculation protocol to analyze the replication of R. solanacearum upon infiltration into the leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, in which gene expression has been altered using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The protocol includes five major steps: 1) growth of N. benthamiana plants; 2) infiltration of A. tumefaciens; 3) R. solanacearum inoculation; 4) sample collection and bacterial quantitation; 5) data analysis and representation. The transient gene expression or gene silencing prior to R. solanacearum inoculation provides a straightforward way to perform genetic analysis of plant functions involved in the interaction between pathogen and host, using the appropriate combination of A. tumefaciens and R. solanacearum strains, with high sensitivity and accuracy provided by the quantitation of bacterial numbers in plant tissues.

0 Q&A 3211 Views Jan 20, 2021
This protocol describes the generation of protoplasts from protonemal tissue of the moss Physcomitrium patens (syn. Physcomitrella patens), using Cellulase ONOZUKA R10 and Macerozyme R10, followed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) mediated transformation. The protonemal tissue grown in liquid suspension was harvested and treated with enzyme cocktails mix of 1.5% Cellulase ONOZUKA R10 and 0.5% Macerozyme R10 to generate 1,8 million protoplasts within 3 h.
1 Q&A 4140 Views Nov 20, 2020

Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is a popular herb with high economic value and is currently threatened by a severe oomycete disease. An efficient transformation method is a prerequisite for gene functional analysis to accelerate molecular breeding and deploy effective disease management strategies, and breeding through genetic engineering. Here we present a detailed protocol for a highly efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for sweet basil, which was established based on a previously reported method by other researchers, with modifications on several aspects, including growth of sweet basil, age of plants used for explants, preparation and concentration of Agrobacteria. This protocol allows researchers in academia and agroindustry to generate transgenic sweet basil plants in an easy, quick and highly reproducible manner. In addition, this protocol may be applicable to transform other species within the genus Ocimum.

0 Q&A 3592 Views Sep 5, 2019
The ability to achieve nuclear or chloroplast transformation in plants has been a long standing goal, especially in microalgae research. Over past years there has been only little success, but transient and stable nuclear transformation has been achieved in multiple species. Our newly developed method allows for relatively simple transformation of Cyanidioschizon merolae in both nuclear and chloroplast genome by means of homologous recombination between the genome and a transformation vector. The use of chloramphenicol resistance gene as the selectable marker allows for plate-based efficient selection of mutant colonies. Overall, the method allows the generation of mutant strains within 6 months.

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