Biochemistry

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Carbamoyltransferase Enzyme Assay: In vitro Modification of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) to 5-carbamoyloxymethylcytosine (5cmC)
    [Abstract]

    Nucleic acids in living organisms are more complex than the simple combinations of the four canonical nucleotides. Recent advances in biomedical research have led to the discovery of numerous naturally occurring nucleotide modifications and enzymes responsible for the synthesis of such modifications. In turn, these enzymes can be leveraged towards

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    Assay to Study the Phase-transition Behavior of Edc3, a Conserved Processing Body (P-body) Marker Protein
    Authors:  Raju Roy and Purusharth I. Rajyaguru, date: 08/20/2022, view: 1001, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    RNA granules are conserved, non-membranous, biphasic structures predominantly composed of RNA and RNA-binding proteins. RNA granules often assemble as a result of cellular responses to a variety of stresses, including infection. Two types of RNA granules are best characterized: stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (P-bodies). The mechanism

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    Purification of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) Nucleocapsid Protein Using Detergent Gradient and Free Thawing
    Authors:  Austin Royster and Sheema Mir, date: 08/05/2022, view: 360, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Protein aggregation remains a major challenge in the purification of recombinant proteins in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems. One such protein is the nucleocapsid protein of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which has high aggregation tendency and rapidly precipitates upon purification by NiNTA chromatography. Using

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    Preparation of Cas9 Ribonucleoproteins for Genome Editing
    Authors:  Sheng-Wei Lin, Viet Quoc Nguyen and Steven Lin, date: 05/20/2022, view: 1833, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Genome editing by the delivery of pre-assembled Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (Cas9 RNP) is an increasingly popular approach for cell types that are difficult to manipulate genetically by the conventional plasmid and viral methods. Cas9 RNP editing is robust, precise, capable of multiplexing, and free of genetic materials. Its transient presence in

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    Purification of the Bacterial Amyloid “Curli” from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Detection of Curli from Infected Host Tissues
    [Abstract]

    Microbiologists are learning to appreciate the importance of “functional amyloids” that are produced by numerous bacterial species and have impacts beyond the microbial world. These structures are used by bacteria to link together, presumably to increase survival, protect against harsh conditions, and perhaps to influence cell-cell

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    Expression, Purification, and in vitro Enzyme Activity Assay of a Recombinant Aldehyde Dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus, using an Escherichia coli host
    Authors:  Kim Shortall, Edmond Magner and Tewfik Soulimane, date: 05/05/2022, view: 1050, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Based on previous in-depth characterisation, aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are a diverse superfamily of enzymes, in terms of both structure and function, present in all kingdoms of life. They catalyse the oxidation of an aldehyde to carboxylic acid using the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)+), and are often not

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    Apoplastic Expression of CARD1-ecto Domain in Nicotiana benthamiana and Purification from the Apoplastic Fluids
    Authors:  Nobuaki Ishihama, Anuphon Laohavisit, Kaori Takizawa and Ken Shirasu, date: 04/20/2022, view: 1312, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The protein expression and purification process is an essential initial step for biochemical analysis of a protein of interest. Traditionally, heterologous protein expression systems (such as E. coli, yeast, insect cells, and cell-free) are employed for plant protein expression, although a plant expression system is often desirable for plant

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    Measuring Oligonucleotide Hydrolysis in Cellular Lysates via Viscosity Measurements
    Authors:  Romel Menacho-Melgar and Michael D. Lynch, date: 01/20/2022, view: 1419, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Cell lysis, a process that releases host oligonucleotides, is required in many biotechnological applications. However, intact oligonucleotides in crude cellular lysates increase the viscosity of lysates, which complicates downstream processes and routine laboratory workflows. To address this, nucleases that hydrolyze the intact oligonucleotides

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    Isolation of Mitochondria from Ustilago maydis Protoplasts
    [Abstract]

    Ustilago maydis, a basidiomycete that infects Zea mays, is one of the top ten fungal models for studying DNA repair, signal transduction pathways, and dimorphic transitions, among other processes. From a metabolic point of view, U. maydis lacks fermentative capacity, pointing to mitochondria as a key player in central metabolism. Oxidative

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    Urea Denaturation, Zinc Binding, and DNA Binding Assays of Mutant p53 DNA-binding Domains and Full-length Proteins
    Authors:  Jeung-Hoi Ha, Xin Yu, Darren R. Carpizo and Stewart N. Loh, date: 10/20/2021, view: 1369, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    In the cell, the thermodynamic stability of a protein – and hence its biological activity – can change dramatically as a result of perturbations in its amino acid sequence and the concentration of stabilizing ligands. This interplay is particularly evident in zinc-binding transcription factors such as the p53 tumor suppressor, whose

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