Plant Science


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 359 Views Aug 5, 2023

Plants elicit defense responses when exposed to pathogens, which partly contribute to the resistance of plants to Agrobacterium tumefaciens–mediated transformation. Some pathogenic bacteria have sophisticated mechanisms to counteract these defense responses by injecting Type III effectors (T3Es) through the Type III secretion system (T3SS). By engineering A. tumefaciens to express T3SS to deliver T3Es, we suppressed plant defense and enhanced plant genetic transformation. Here, we describe the optimized protocols for mobilization of T3SS-expressing plasmid to engineer A. tumefaciens to deliver proteins through T3SS and fractionation of cultures to study proteins from pellet and supernatants to determine protein secretion from engineered A. tumefaciens.

0 Q&A 892 Views Jun 5, 2023

Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a soil bacteria with extensive infectivity, which can infect almost all dicotyledonous plants and a few monocotyledonous plants to induce root nodules. This is caused by the root-inducing plasmid, which contains genes responsible for the autonomous growth of root nodules and crown gall base synthesis. Structurally, it is similar to the tumor-inducing plasmid in that it mainly contains the Vir region, the T-DNA region, and the functional region of crown gall base synthesis. Its T-DNA is integrated into the nuclear genome of the plant with the assistance of Vir genes, causing hairy root disease in the host plant and the formation of hairy roots. The roots produced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes–infested plants are characterized by a fast growth rate, high degree of differentiation, physiological, biochemical, and genetic stability, and ease of manipulation and control. In particular, the hairy root system is an efficient and rapid research tool for plants that have no affinity for transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and low transformation efficiency. The establishment of germinating root culture system for the production of secondary metabolites in the original plants through the genetic transformation of natural plants mediated by root-inducing plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes has become a new technology combining plant genetic engineering and cell engineering. It has been widely used in a variety of plants for different molecular purposes, such as pathological analysis, gene function verification, and secondary metabolite research. Chimeric plants obtained by induction of Agrobacterium rhizogenes that can be expressed instantaneously and contemporarily are more rapidly obtained, compared to tissue culture and stably inheritable transgenic strains. In general, transgenic plants can be obtained in approximately one month.

0 Q&A 1511 Views May 20, 2023

Cotton is a significant industrial crop, playing an essential role in the global economy that suffers several setbacks due to biotic and abiotic adversities. Despite such problems, biotechnological advances in cotton are limited because of genetic transformation and regeneration limitations. Here, we present a detailed protocol optimized based on previously published papers, along with our modifications. These involve changes in Agrobacterium concentration, co-cultivation time and temperature, hormones used for regeneration, media manipulation for embryogenic callus production, and efficient rescue of deformed embryos. Further, this protocol has been used in genetic studies on biotic and abiotic stress in cotton. This protocol assures a reproducible stable transgenic cotton development procedure via somatic embryogenesis that can be used by researchers worldwide.

0 Q&A 3907 Views Sep 20, 2021

Identification of novel genes and their functions in rice is a critical step to improve economic traits. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a proven method in many laboratories and widely adopted for genetic engineering in rice. However, the efficiency of gene transfer by Agrobacterium in rice is low, particularly among japonica and indica varieties. In this protocol, we elucidate a rapid and highly efficient protocol to transform and regenerate transgenic rice plants through important key features of Agrobacterium transformation and standard regeneration media, especially enhancing culture conditions, timing, and growth hormones. With this protocol, transformed plantlets from the embryogenetic callus of the japonica cultivar ‘Taichung 65’ may be obtained within 90 days. This protocol may be used with other japonica rice varieties.

1 Q&A 4431 Views Jan 5, 2021
Cell suspension cultures have been studied for decades to produce natural molecules. However, the difficulty in generating stably transformed cell lines has limited their use to produce high value chemicals reproducibly and in elevated quantities.

In this protocol, a method to stably transform and maintain Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures is devised and presented in detail. Arabidopsis cell cultures were directly transformed with A. tumefaciens for the overexpression of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) jasmonate receptor. Cell cultures were established after transformation and continuously maintained and tested for the overexpression of COI1. The protocol was also previously used to silence Arabidopsis peroxidases and allows for long term maintenance of transformed cells. Details on culture maintenance, both in liquid and solid media are provided, alongside with evidence of protein expression to confirm transformation.

The system described provides a powerful tool for synthetic biology to study signaling independent of developmental control and to obtain metabolites of interest for the biotechnological and medical sectors.

1 Q&A 4192 Views Nov 20, 2020

Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is a popular herb with high economic value and is currently threatened by a severe oomycete disease. An efficient transformation method is a prerequisite for gene functional analysis to accelerate molecular breeding and deploy effective disease management strategies, and breeding through genetic engineering. Here we present a detailed protocol for a highly efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for sweet basil, which was established based on a previously reported method by other researchers, with modifications on several aspects, including growth of sweet basil, age of plants used for explants, preparation and concentration of Agrobacteria. This protocol allows researchers in academia and agroindustry to generate transgenic sweet basil plants in an easy, quick and highly reproducible manner. In addition, this protocol may be applicable to transform other species within the genus Ocimum.

0 Q&A 7932 Views Sep 5, 2020
Genetic transformation is crucial for both investigating gene functions and for engineering of crops to introduce new traits. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important model in plant research, since it is the staple food for more than half of the world’s population. As a result, numerous transformation methods have been developed for both indica and japonica rice. Since breeders continuously develop new rice varieties, transformation protocols have to be adapted for each new variety. Here we provide an optimized transformation protocol with detailed tips and tricks for a new African variety Komboka using immature embryos. In Komboka, we obtained an apparent transformation rate of up to 48% for GUS/GFP reporter gene constructs using this optimized protocol. This protocol is also applicable for use with other elite indica rice varieties.
0 Q&A 6217 Views Dec 20, 2018
Cell-to-cell movement of proteins through plasmodesmata is a widely-established mechanism for intercellular signaling in plants. Current techniques to study intercellular protein translocation rely on single-cell transformation using particle bombardment or transgenic lines expressing photo-inducible fluorophores. The method presented here allows visualization and objective quantification of (effector) protein movement between N. benthamiana leaf cells. Agroinfiltration is performed using a single binary vector encoding a GFP-tagged protein of interest that is either mobile or non-mobile (MP; non-MP), together with an ER-anchored mCherry. Upon creation of mosaic-like transformation patterns, cell-to-cell movement of the MP can be followed by monitoring translocation of the GFP signal from mCherry labeled transformed cells into neighboring non-transformed cells. This process can be visualized using confocal microscopy and quantified following protoplast isolation and flow cytometric cell analysis. This method overcomes the limitations of existing methods as it allows rapid and objective quantification of protein translocation without the need of creating transgenic plants.
0 Q&A 8162 Views Nov 20, 2017
Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important oil crops in the Mediterranean basin. Biotechnological improvement of this species is hampered by the recalcitrant nature of olive tissue to regenerate in vitro. In previous investigations, our group has developed a reliable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol using olive somatic embryos as explants (Torreblanca et al., 2010). Embryogenic cultures derived from radicles of matured zygotic embryos are infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, AGL1 strain, containing a binary plasmid with the gene of interest and the nptII selection gene. After a meticulous selection procedure, carried out using solid and liquid media supplemented with paromomycin, the putative transformed lines are established. A preliminary confirmation of their transgenic nature is carried out through PCR amplification. Afterwards, plants can be obtained through an efficient regeneration protocol, whose main characteristics are the use of a low-ionic-strength mineral formulation, a phase in liquid medium for synchronization of cultures and the use of semi-permeable cellulose acetate membranes for embryo maturation (Cerezo et al., 2011). Final confirmation of transgene insertion is carried out through Southern or Northern analysis using leaf samples of regenerated plants.
0 Q&A 14383 Views Apr 5, 2017
CRISPR/Cas9 system is a recently developed genome editing tool, and its power has been demonstrated in many organisms, including some plant species (Wang et al., 2016). In eukaryotes, the Cas9/gRNA complexes target genome sites specifically and cleave them to produce double-strand breaks (DSBs), which can be repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway (Wang et al., 2016). Since NHEJ is error prone, mutations are thus generated. In plants, delivery of genome editing reagents is still challenging. In this protocol, we detail the procedure of a virus-based gRNA delivery system for CRISPR/Cas9 mediated plant genome editing (VIGE). This method offers a rapid and efficient way to deliver gRNA into plant cells, especially for those that are recalcitrant to transformation with Agrobacterium.

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