Biochemistry


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0 Q&A 1987 Views Jun 20, 2022

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an essential cofactor of numerous enzymatic reactions found in all living cells. Pyridine nucleotides (NAD+ and NADH) are also key players in signaling through reactive oxygen species (ROS), being crucial in the regulation of both ROS-producing and ROS-consuming systems in plants. NAD content is a powerful modulator of metabolic integration, protein de-acetylation, and DNA repair. The balance between NAD oxidized and reduced forms, i.e., the NADH/NAD+ ratio, indicates the redox state of a cell, and it is a measurement that reflects the metabolic health of cells. Here we present an easy method to estimate the NAD+ and NADH content enzymatically, using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), an oxido-reductase enzyme, and with MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) as the substrate and 1-methoxy PMS (1-Methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methyl sulfate) as the electron carrier. MTT is reduced to a purple formazan, which is then detected. We used Arabidopsis leaf samples exposed to aluminum toxicity and under untreated control conditions. NADH/NAD+ connects many aspects of metabolism and plays vital roles in plant developmental processes and stress responses. Therefore, it is fundamental to determine the status of NADH/NAD+ under stress.

0 Q&A 3629 Views Jan 5, 2020
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) synthesis requires nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) kinase activity, substrate NAD and ATP. The NAD kinase responds to various environmental stimuli and its activity is regulated via various regulatory pathways, such as Ca2+-dependent and redox-dependent signals. Conventional in vitro NAD kinase assay has been useful to evaluate enzyme activity; however, recent reports revealed a dynamics of NADP pool (the sum of NADP+ and NADPH) under fluctuating light condition, indicating that the rate of NADP synthesis is not always determined by NAD kinase activity. Here, we developed a novel method for the estimation of chloroplastic NAD kinase activity by quantifying the changes in the NADP amounts in response to illumination. As our approach does not involve protein extraction, it saves time (compared to the in vitro assay), thereby allowing for a sequence of assays, and provides several clues in the investigation of regulatory mechanisms behind NADP synthesis under various environmental conditions.
0 Q&A 6909 Views Jul 20, 2018
Current studies on the age-related development of metabolic dysfunction and frailty are each day in more evidence. It is known, as aging progresses, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels decrease in an expected physiological process. Recent studies have shown that a reduction in NAD+ is a key factor for the development of age-associated metabolic decline. Increased NAD+ levels in vivo results in activation of pro-longevity and health span-related factors. Also, it improves several physiological and metabolic parameters of aging, including muscle function, exercise capacity, glucose tolerance, and cardiac function in mouse models of natural and accelerated aging.

Given the importance of monitoring cellular NAD+ and NADH levels, it is crucial to have a trustful method to do so. This protocol has the purpose of describing the NAD+ and NADH extraction from tissues and cells in an efficient and widely applicable assay as well as its graphic and quantitative analysis.



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