Biochemistry

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    A Novel Imaging Technique for The On-site Assessment of Renal Biopsy Specimens
    Authors:  Tomoaki Takata, Hajime Isomoto, Takuji Iyama and Kentaro Yamada, date: 09/20/2022, view: 95, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    When performing renal biopsy, it is necessary to identify the cortex, where glomeruli are exclusively distributed, to ensure the quality of the specimen for histological diagnosis. However, conventional methods using a stereomicroscope or magnifying lens often fail to clarify the quality of the specimen. We have established a fluorescent-based

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    Quantitative Analysis of Redox Pool (NAD+, NADH Content) in Plant Samples Under Aluminum Stress
    Authors:  Jay Prakash Awasthi, Bedabrata Saha, Hiroyuki Koyama and Sanjib Kumar Panda, date: 06/20/2022, view: 1374, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an essential cofactor of numerous enzymatic reactions found in all living cells. Pyridine nucleotides (NAD+ and NADH) are also key players in signaling through reactive oxygen species (ROS), being crucial in the regulation of both ROS-producing and ROS-consuming systems in plants. NAD content is a

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    H2O2 Release Assay
    Authors:  Santosh Yadav, Shruthi Sanjitha Sampath, Brian J. Deskin and Victor J. Thannickal, date: 06/05/2022, view: 1583, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Reactive oxygen species are ubiquitous in nature, and function as signalling molecules in biological systems; they may also contribute to oxidative stress in several pathobiological disease states. In this report, we describe a simple, reliable, sensitive, and specific assay for the detection and quantitation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) release by

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    Tracking the Reversed Oxidative Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Bacteria
    [Abstract]

    Different pathways for autotrophic CO2 fixation can be recognized by the presence of genes for their specific key enzymes. On this basis, (meta)genomic, (meta)transcriptomic, or (meta)proteomic analysis enables the identification of the role of an organism or a distinct pathway in primary production. However, the recently discovered variant of the

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    Proteoliposomes for Studying Lipid-protein Interactions in Membranes in vitro
    Author:  Helmut Kirchhoff, date: 10/20/2021, view: 1232, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Lipids in biomembranes can control the structure and, therefore, the functionality of membrane-embedded protein complexes. Unraveling how the lipid composition determines the mode of operation of membrane proteins provides mechanistic insights into their functionality. We applied a proteoliposome technique for studying how proteins function in

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    Acid Hydrolysis for the Extraction of Archaeal Core Lipids and HPLC-MS Analysis
    Authors:  Maxime Tourte, Philippe Schaeffer, Vincent Grossi and Philippe M. Oger, date: 08/20/2021, view: 1279, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Lipid membranes are essential cellular elements as they provide cellular integrity and selective permeability under a broad range of environmental settings upon cell growth. In particular, Archaea are commonly recognized for their tolerance to extreme conditions, which is now widely accepted to stem from the unique structure of their lipids. While

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    Enrichment of Vascular Fragments from Mouse Embryonic Brains for Endothelial Cell Analysis
    Authors:  Nicolas Santander and Thomas D. Arnold, date: 06/20/2021, view: 1939, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Endothelial cells in the brain interact with other cell types, forming the blood-brain barrier. This barrier controls the movement of solutes into and out of the brain, regulating pathophysiological processes and drug delivery to the brain. Common isolation methods used to study these cells during embryonic development involve enzymatic treatment

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    Fluorescence-based Heme Quantitation in Toxoplasma Gondii
    Authors:  Amy Bergmann and Zhicheng Dou, date: 06/20/2021, view: 2091, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Toxoplasma gondii is a highly prevalent protozoan pathogen throughout the world. As a eukaryotic intracellular pathogen, Toxoplasma ingests nutrients from host cells to support its intracellular growth. The parasites also encode full or partial metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of certain nutrients, such as heme. Heme is an essential

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    Histological Methods to Detect Early-stage Plant Defense Responses during Artificial Inoculation of Lolium perenne with Epichloë festucae
    Authors:  Mostafa Rahnama, Damien J. Fleetwood and Richard D. Johnson, date: 05/05/2021, view: 4582, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Epichloë species form agriculturally important symbioses with many cool season grasses. To study these symbioses, such as the interaction of Epichloë festucae with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), host plants can be infected by artificial inoculation of etiolated seedlings. This inoculation is performed by placing mycelium into an

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    Atomic Force Microscopy to Characterize Ginger Lipid-Derived Nanoparticles (GLDNP)
    Authors:  Dingpei Long, Chunhua Yang, Junsik Sung and Didier Merlin, date: 04/05/2021, view: 4138, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    We have demonstrated that a specific population of ginger-derived nanoparticles (GDNP-2) could effectively target the colon, reduce colitis, and alleviate colitis-associated colon cancer. Naturally occurring GDNP-2 contains complex bioactive components, including lipids, proteins, miRNAs, and ginger secondary metabolites (gingerols and shogaols).

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