Biological Sciences

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Ex-vivo Skin Permeability Tests of Nanoparticles for Microscopy Imaging
    Authors:  Nethanel Friedman, Sharon Merims, Jhonatan Elia and Ofra Benny, date: 04/05/2022, view: 389, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Delivery of drugs through the skin is a major challenge in the field of drug delivery systems. Quantification of materials, and specifically nanoparticles, within the skin layers is essential for the development of advanced topical and transdermal delivery systems. We have developed a technique for ex-vivo segmentation and evaluation of human

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    Large-scale Analysis of Sleep in Zebrafish
    Authors:  Daniel A. Lee, Grigorios Oikonomou and David A. Prober, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1476, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Over the past decade, zebrafish have emerged as a powerful model for the study of vertebrate sleep and wake behaviors. Experimental evidence has demonstrated behavioral, anatomical, genetic, and pharmacological conservation of sleep between zebrafish and mammals, suggesting that discoveries in zebrafish can inform our understanding of mammalian

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    Induction of Repeated Social Defeat Stress in Rats
    Authors:  Soumyabrata Munshi, Alexandra Ritger and J. Amiel Rosenkranz, date: 02/05/2022, view: 749, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) is a model of chronic stress in rodents. There are several variants of social defeat procedures that exert robust effects in mice, but few published detailed protocols to produce a robust stress and altered immunological profile in rats. In this article, we describe the protocol for the induction of RSDS in

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    Rhizoctonia solani Infection Assay of Young Sugar Beet and Arabidopsis plantlets
    Authors:  Fredrik Dölfors, Louise Holmquist, Georgios Tzelepis and Christina Dixelius, date: 01/20/2022, view: 1333, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne fungus, which rarely produces any spores in culture. Hence, all inoculation procedures are based on mycelia, often as a coat on cereal kernels, placed in close vicinity to the plant to be infected. In this protocol, an inoculation method is described where the fungus is first allowed to infest a perlite-maize

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    Total Nucleic Acid Extraction from Single Zebrafish Embryos for Genotyping and RNA-seq
    Authors:  Neha Wali, Munise Merteroglu, Richard J. White and Elisabeth M. Busch-Nentwich, date: 01/05/2022, view: 1540, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    RNA sequencing allows for the quantification of the transcriptome of embryos to investigate transcriptional responses to various perturbations (e.g., mutations, infections, drug treatments). Previous protocols either lack the option to genotype individual samples, or are laborious and therefore difficult to do at a large scale. We have developed a

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    Non-invasive Imaging of Rice Roots in Non-compacted and Compacted Soil
    Authors:  Bipin K. Pandey, Jonathan A. Atkinson and Craig J. Sturrock, date: 12/20/2021, view: 1783, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Roots are the prime organ for nutrient and water uptake and are therefore fundamental to the growth and development of plants. However, physical challenges of a heterogeneous environment and diverse edaphic stresses affect root growth in soil. Compacted soil is a serious global problem, causing inhibition of root elongation, which reduces surface

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    A Method to Induce Brown/Beige Adipocyte Differentiation from Murine Preadipocytes
    Authors:  Andréa Livia Rocha, Beatriz Alves Guerra, Jeremie Boucher and Marcelo A. Mori, date: 12/20/2021, view: 1262, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Adipocytes exhibit different morphological and functional characteristics, depending on their anatomical location, developmental origin, and stimulus. While white adipocytes tend to accumulate energy as triglycerides, brown and beige adipocytes tend to direct carbon sources to fuel thermogenesis. White and beige adipocytes originate from common

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    Delivery of AAV for Expression of Fluorescent Biosensors in Juvenile Mouse Hippocampus
    [Abstract]

    Genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors are versatile tools for studying brain metabolism and function in live tissue. The genetic information for these biosensors can be delivered into the brain by stereotaxic injection of engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs), which can selectively target different cell types depending on the capsid

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    A Combinatorial in-silico, in-vitro and in-vivo Approach to Quantitatively Study Peptide Induced MHC Stability
    Authors:  Roman Sarkar, Yashu Sharma, Ayush Jain, Azeez Tehseen, Sudhakar Singh and Sharvan Sehrawat, date: 12/20/2021, view: 1021, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Here, we describe a combinatorial approach in reverse vaccinology to identify immunogenic class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) displayed epitopes derived from a morbillivirus named pestes des petits ruminants (PPRV). The protocol describes an in silico prediction of immunogenic epitopes using an IEDB tool. The predicted peptides were

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    Quantitative Determination of Primary Cilia Protein Distribution Using Immunofluorescence Staining and MATLAB Analysis
    Authors:  Andrew D. Jenks, Marc Fivaz and Barbara E. Tanos, date: 12/05/2021, view: 1811, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract]

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles surrounded by membrane. They can detect mechanical and chemical stimuli. The last few years have uncovered cilia as unique signaling hubs that host a number of receptors and effector molecules. Thus, defining how specific proteins localize and are distributed along the cilium is critical to

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