Biochemistry


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0 Q&A 209 Views Dec 20, 2022

Several assays have been developed to monitor the in vitro catalytic activity of Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat), an enzyme critical to the Hedgehog signaling pathway in cells. However, the majority of these previously reported assays involve radioactive fatty acyl donor substrates, multiple steps to achieve product readout, or specialized equipment. To increase safety, efficiency, and convenience, we developed a direct, fluorescent in vitro assay to monitor Hhat activity. Our assay utilizes purified Hhat, a fluorescently labeled fatty acyl-CoA donor substrate, and a Sonic hedgehog (Shh) peptide recipient substrate sufficient for fatty acylation. The protocol is a straightforward process that yields direct readout of fatty acylated Shh peptide via fluorescence detection of the transferred fatty acyl group.


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Graphical abstract adapted from Schonbrun and Resh (2022)

0 Q&A 257 Views Dec 5, 2022

Immunoglobulins are proteins produced by the immune system, which bind specifically to the antigen that induced their formation and target it for destruction. Highly purified human immunoglobulins are commonly used in research laboratories for several applications, such as in vitro to obtain hybridomas and in vivo animal immunisation. Several affinity purification methods are used to purify immunoglobulins from human serum, such as protein A/G Sepharose beads, polyethylene glycol, and caprylic acid ammonium sulphate precipitation. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for purification of high-quality IgG from human serum, using affinity chromatography with protein G. The protocol is divided into four main steps (column preparation, serum running, wash, and elution) for IgG purification, and two extra steps (protein dialysis and sucrose concentration) that should be performed when buffer exchange and protein concentration are required. Several IgG affinity purification methods using protein A or G are available in the literature, but protein A has a higher affinity for rabbit, pig, dog, and cat IgG, while protein G has a higher affinity for mouse and human IgG. This affinity-based purification protocol uses protein G for a highly specific purification of human IgG for animal immunization, and it is particularly useful to purify large amounts of human IgG.


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IgG purification protocol.
The IgG purification protocol consists of four main steps (column preparation, serum running, wash, and elution) and two extra steps (protein dialysis and concentration). a. Diluted serum is added to the protein G beads and IgG binds to the Fc receptors on protein G beads. b. Beads are washed in Hartman’s solution to fully remove the complex protein mixture (multicolour shapes, as depicted in the graphical abstract). c. IgG (orange triangles, as depicted in the graphical abstract) are removed from protein G with glycine and collected in Tris buffer. d. The IgG is transferred into a semi-permeable membrane (‘snake skin’) and allowed to dialyse overnight for buffer exchange with a physiological solution (Hartmann’s).


0 Q&A 887 Views Nov 20, 2022

Chemical proteomics focuses on the drug–target–phenotype relationship for target deconvolution and elucidation of the mechanism of action—key and bottleneck in drug development and repurposing. Majorly due to the limits of using chemically modified ligands in affinity-based methods, new, unbiased, proteome-wide, and MS-based chemical proteomics approaches have been developed to perform drug target deconvolution, using full proteome profiling and no chemical modification of the studied ligand. Of note among them, thermal proteome profiling (TPP) aims to identify the target(s) by measuring the difference in melting temperatures between each identified protein in drug-treated versus vehicle-treated samples, with the thermodynamic interpretation of “protein melting” and curve fitting of all quantified proteins, at all temperatures, in each biological replicate. Including TPP, all the other chemical proteomics approaches often fail to provide target deconvolution with sufficient proteome depth, statistical power, throughput, and sustainability, which could hardly fulfill the final purpose of drug development. The proteome integral solubility alteration (PISA) assay provides no thermodynamic interpretation, but a throughput 10–100-fold compared to the other proteomics methods, high sustainability, much lower time of analysis and sample amount requirements, high confidence in results, maximal proteome coverage (~10,000 protein IDs), and up to five drugs / test molecules in one assay, with at least biological triplicates of each treatment. Each drug-treated or vehicle-treated sample is split into many fractions and exposed to a gradient of heat as solubility perturbing agent before being recomposed into one sample; each soluble fraction is isolated, then deep and quantitative proteomics is applied across all samples. The proteins interacting with the tested molecules (targets and off-targets), the activated mechanistic factors, or proteins modified during the treatment show reproducible changes in their soluble amount compared to vehicle-treated controls. As of today, the maximal multiplexing capability is 18 biological samples per PISA assay, which enables statistical robustness and flexible experimental design accommodation for fuller target deconvolution, including integration of orthogonal chemical proteomics methods in one PISA assay. Living cells for studying target engagement in vivo or, alternatively, protein extracts to identify in vitro ligand-interacting proteins can be studied, and the minimal need in sample amount unlocks target deconvolution using primary cells and their derived cultures.


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0 Q&A 553 Views Nov 5, 2022

Reconstitution of membrane proteins into large unilamellar vesicles is an essential approach for their functional analysis under chemically defined conditions. The orientation of the protein in the liposomal membrane after reconstitution depends on many parameters, and its assessment is important prior to functional measurements. Common approaches for determining the orientation of a membrane-inserted protein are based on limited proteolytic digest, impermeable labeling reagents for specific amino acids, or membrane-impermeable quenchers for fluorescent proteins. Here, we describe a simple site-specific fluorescent assay based on self-labeling enzyme tags to determine the orientation of membrane proteins after reconstitution, exemplified on a reconstituted SNAP-tag plant H+-ATPase. This versatile method should benefit the optimization of reconstitution conditions and the analysis of many types of membrane proteins.


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0 Q&A 586 Views Nov 5, 2022

Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification conserved across eukaryotic species. It contributes to a variety of regulatory pathways, including proteasomal degradation, DNA repair, and cellular differentiation. The ubiquitination of substrate proteins typically requires three ubiquitination enzymes: a ubiquitin-activating E1, a ubiquitin-conjugating E2, and an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Cooperation between E2s and E3s is required for substrate ubiquitination, but some ubiquitin-conjugating E2s are also able to catalyze by themselves the formation of free di-ubiquitin, independently or in cooperation with a ubiquitin E2 variant. Here, we describe a method for assessing (i) di-ubiquitin formation by an E1 together with an E2 and an E2 variant, and (ii) the cooperation of an E3 with an E1 and E2 (with or without the E2 variant). Reaction products are assessed using western blotting with one of two antibodies: the first detects all ubiquitin conjugates, while the second specifically recognizes K63-linked ubiquitin. This allows unambiguous identification of ubiquitinated species and assessment of whether K63 linkages are present. We have developed these methods for studying ubiquitination proteins of Leishmania mexicana, specifically the activities of the E2, UBC2, and the ubiquitin E2 variant UEV1, but we anticipate the assays to be applicable to other ubiquitination systems with UBC2/UEV1 orthologues.

0 Q&A 581 Views Nov 5, 2022

Cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is a multi-domain protein that acts as a redox partner of cytochrome P450s. The CPR contains a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)–binding domain, a flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-binding domain, and a connecting domain. To achieve catalytic events, the FMN-binding domain needs to move relative to the FAD-binding domain, and this high flexibility complicates structural determination in high-resolution by X-ray crystallography. Here, we demonstrate a seeding technique of sorghum CPR crystals for resolution improvement, which can be applied to other poorly diffracting protein crystals. Protein expression is completed using an E. coli cell line with a high protein yield and purified using chromatography techniques. Crystals are screened using an automated 96-well plating robot. Poorly diffracting crystals are originally grown using a hanging drop method from successful trials observed in sitting drops. A macro seeding technique is applied by transferring crystal clusters to fresh conditions without nucleation to increase crystal size. Prior to diffraction, a dehydration technique is applied by serial transfer to higher precipitant concentrations. Thus, an increase in resolution by 7 Å is achieved by limiting the inopportune effects of the flexibility inherent to the domains of CPR, and secondary structures of SbCPR2c are observed.


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0 Q&A 688 Views Nov 5, 2022

This protocol describes the recombinant expression of proteins in E. coli containing phosphoserine (pSer) installed at positions guided by TAG codons. The E. coli strains that can be used here are engineered with a ∆serB genomic knockout to produce pSer internally at high levels, so no exogenously added pSer is required, and the addition of pSer to the media will not affect expression yields. For “truncation-free” expression and improved yields with high flexibility of construct design, it is preferred to use the Release Factor-1 (RF1) deficient strain B95(DE3) ∆AfabRserB, though use of the standard RF1-containing BL21(DE3) ∆serB is also described. Both of these strains are serine auxotrophs and will not grow in standard minimal media. This protocol uses rich auto-induction media for streamlined and maximal production of homogeneously modified protein, yielding ~100–200 mg of single pSer-containing sfGFP per liter of culture. Using this genetic code expansion (GCE) approach, in which pSer is installed into proteins during translation, allows researchers to produce milligram quantities of specific phospho-proteins without requiring kinases, which can be purified for downstream in vitro studies relating to phosphorylation-dependent signaling systems, protein regulation by phosphorylation, and protein–protein interactions.


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0 Q&A 705 Views Oct 20, 2022

Single-molecule measurements provide statistical distributions of molecular properties, in addition to the ensemble averages. Evanescent detection approaches have been widely used for single-molecule detection because the evanescent field can significantly enhance the light-analyte interaction and reduce the background noise. However, current evanescent single-molecule detection systems mostly require specially designed sensing components. Here, we show that single proteins can be imaged on a plain cover glass surface by detecting the evanescent waves scattered by the target molecules. This allows us to quantify the protein–antibody interactions at the single-molecule level. This protocol describes a label-free single-molecule imaging approach with conventional consumables and may pave the road for detecting single molecules with commercial optical microscopy.

0 Q&A 905 Views Oct 20, 2022

The core planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Vang/Vangl, including Vangl1 and Vangl2 in vertebrates, is indispensable during development. Our previous studies showed that the activity of Vangl is tightly controlled by two important posttranslational modifications, ubiquitination and phosphorylation. Vangl is ubiquitinated through an endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway and is phosphorylated by casein kinase 1 (CK1) in response to Wnt. Here, we present step-by-step procedures to analyze Vangl ubiquitination and phosphorylation, including cell culture, transfection, sample preparation, and signal detection, as well as the use of newly available phospho-specific antibodies to detect Wnt-induced Vangl2 phosphorylation. The protocol described here can be applicable to the analysis of posttranslational modifications of other membrane proteins.

0 Q&A 953 Views Oct 20, 2022

The ribosome is a complex cellular machinery whose solved structure allowed for an incredible leap in structural biology research. Different ions bind to the ribosome, stabilizing inter-subunit interfaces and structurally linking rRNAs, proteins, and ligands. Besides cations such as K+ and Mg2+, polyamines are known to stabilize the folding of RNA and overall structure. The bacterial ribosome is composed of a small (30S) subunit containing the decoding center and a large (50S) subunit devoted to peptide bond formation. We have previously shown that the small ribosomal subunit of Staphylococcus aureus is sensitive to changes in ionic conditions and polyamines concentration. In particular, its decoding center, where mRNA codons and tRNA anticodons interact, is prone to structural deformations in the absence of spermidine. Here, we report a detailed protocol for the purification of the intact and functional 30S, achieved through specific ionic conditions and the addition of spermidine. Using this protocol, we obtained the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the 30S–mRNA complex from S. aureus at 3.6 Å resolution. The 30S–mRNA complex formation was verified by a toeprinting assay. In this article, we also include a description of toeprinting and cryo-EM protocols. The described protocols can be further used to study the process of translation regulation.


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