Protocols in Current Issue
    Drosophila Model of Leishmania amazonensis Infection
    Authors:  Kendi Okuda and Neal Silverman, date: 12/05/2017, view: 399, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol describes how to generate and harvest antibody-free L. amazonensis amastigotes, and how to infect adult Drosophila melanogaster with these parasites. This model recapitulates key aspects of the interactions between Leishmania amastigotes and animal phagocytes.
    Proboscis Extension Reflex in Apis mellifera [Honeybee] with Only One Antenna
    Authors:  Yu Guo, Zilong Wang, Zhijiang Zeng, Shaowu Zhang and Runsheng Chen, date: 12/05/2017, view: 268, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The proboscis extension reflex (PER) is a common classical conditioned reflex which is widely used in the neurology and ethology. In honeybees, PER experiments can train bees to associate an odor with a reward or punishment. Here we present a variation of the PER experiment in Apis mellifera that trains honeybees using only one antenna. ...
    Live Imaging of Axonal Transport in the Motor Neurons of Drosophila Larvae
    Authors:  Tsuyoshi Inoshita, Nobutaka Hattori and Yuzuru Imai, date: 12/05/2017, view: 402, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Axonal transport, which is composed of microtubules, motor proteins and a variety of types of cargo, is a prominent feature of neurons. Monitoring these molecular dynamics is important to understand the biological processes of neurons as well as neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with axonal dysfunction. Here, we describe a protocol ...
    Rapid IFM Dissection for Visualizing Fluorescently Tagged Sarcomeric Proteins
    Authors:  Yu Shu Xiao, Frieder Schöck and Nicanor González-Morales, date: 11/20/2017, view: 536, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Sarcomeres, the smallest contractile unit of muscles, are arguably the most impressive actomyosin structure. Yet a complete understanding of sarcomere formation and maintenance is missing. The Drosophila indirect flight muscle (IFM) has proven to be a very valuable model to study sarcomeres. Here, we present a protocol for the rapid ...
    Quantification of Densities of Bacterial Endosymbionts of Insects by Real-time PCR
    Author:  Daisuke Kageyama, date: 10/05/2017, view: 786, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Increased attention has been paid to the endosymbiotic bacteria of insects. Because most insect endosymbionts are uncultivable, quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a practical and convenient method to quantify endosymbiont titers. Here we report a protocol for real-time qPCR based on SYBR Green I fluorescence as well as some tips to prevent possible ...
    Protease Activity Assay in Fly Intestines
    Authors:  Marie-Paule Nawrot-Esposito, Rihab Loudhaief and Armel Gallet, date: 09/20/2017, view: 1092, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The intestine is a central organ required for the digestion of food, the absorption of nutrients and for fighting against aggressors ingested along with the food. Impairment of gut physiology following mucosal damages impacts its digestive capacities that consequently will affect growth, wellbeing or even survival of the individual. Hence, the ...
    Drosophila Fecal Sampling
    Authors:  Christine Fink , Jakob von Frieling, Mirjam Knop and Thomas Roeder, date: 09/20/2017, view: 1029, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Fecal sampling is a non-invasive method which raises the possibility to study the development and the changes in the microbial community throughout different time points of a fly population or throughout different treatments. This method allows precise manipulation to trigger the fly’s physiology by nutritional interventions, bacterial infections ...
    Rearing of Culex spp. and Aedes spp. Mosquitoes
    [Abstract] Mosquito-transmitted pathogens cause major public health problems and contribute substantially to the global burden of disease. Aedes mosquitoes transmit dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and Chikungunya viruses; Culex mosquitoes transmit West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses, among others. Experiments ...
    FM1-43 Photoconversion and Electron Microscopy Analysis at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction
    Authors:  Nadezhda S. Sabeva and Maria Bykhovskaia, date: 09/05/2017, view: 1017, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] We developed a protocol for photoconversion of endocytic marker FM1-43 followed by electron microscopy analysis of synaptic boutons at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. This protocol allows detection of stained synaptic vesicle even when release rates are very low, such as during the spontaneous release mode. The preparations are ...
    Cell Type-specific Metabolic Labeling of Proteins with Azidonorleucine in Drosophila
    [Abstract] Advanced mass spectrometry technology has pushed proteomic analyses to the forefront of biological and biomedical research. Limitations of proteomic approaches now often remain with sample preparations rather than with the sensitivity of protein detection. However, deciphering proteomes and their context-dependent dynamics in subgroups of ...