Protocols in Current Issue
    Induction of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Mice with Pilocarpine
    Authors:  Muhammad Nauman Arshad and Janice R Naegele, date: 02/20/2020, view: 1443, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rodents, systemic injections of pilocarpine induce continuous, prolonged limbic seizures, a condition termed “Status Epilepticus” (SE). With appropriate doses, many inbred strains of mice show behavioral seizures within an hour after pilocarpine is injected. With the behavioral scoring ...
    A Simple and Efficient Method for Concomitant Isolation and Culture of Enriched Astroglial and Microglial Cells from the Rat Spinal Cord
    Authors:  Pooja Shree Mishra and Trichur R Raju, date: 01/20/2020, view: 1493, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Investigations into glial biology have contributed substantially in understanding the physiology and pathology of the nervous system. However, intricacies of the neuron-glial and glial-glial interactions in vivo present significant challenges while delineating the individual cell-type contributions, thus making the in vitro ...
    Optical Clearing and Index Matching of Tissue Samples for High-resolution Fluorescence Imaging Using SeeDB2
    Authors:  Meng-Tsen Ke and Takeshi Imai, date: 10/20/2018, view: 5761, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Tissue clearing techniques are useful for large-scale three-dimensional fluorescence imaging of thick tissues. However, high-resolution imaging deep inside tissues has been challenging, as it is extremely sensitive to light scattering and spherical aberrations. Here, we present a water-based optical clearing and mounting media, SeeDB2, which is ...
    Image-Based Analysis of Mitochondrial Area and Counting from Adult Mouse Dopaminergic Neurites
    Authors:  Nadee Nissanka, Carlos T Moraes and Mlena Pinto, date: 08/20/2018, view: 4770, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Mitochondria form dynamic cytoplasmic networks which undergo morphological changes in order to adapt to cellular stresses and signals. These changes can include alterations in size and number within a given cell. Analysis of the whole network can be a useful metric to assess overall mitochondrial health, particularly in neurons, which are highly ...
    Quantitative Electron Microscopic Assay Using Random Sampling from Single Sections to Test Plastic Synaptic Changes in Hippocampus
    Authors:  G. Mark Marcello, Lilla E. Szabó, Peter Sotonyi and Bence Rácz, date: 08/05/2018, view: 3034, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Studies over several decades on the organization of the CA1 hippocampus–a particularly favorable model for learning, memory and certain forms of cognition–have shown that the synaptic network in this brain region is plastic (Fortin et al., 2012). Recent evidence suggests that a number of environmental and endogenous stimuli may have a ...
    Isolation and Maintenance of Striatal Neurons
    Authors:  Luana  Naia and A. Cristina Rego, date: 04/20/2018, view: 5305, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Primary cultures of murine striatal neurons are widely used to explore cellular mechanisms in neurobiology, including brain diseases. Here we describe a detailed and standardized protocol to dissect and culture embryonic murine striatal neurons GABA-positive/DARPP-32-positive for 12 days in vitro, when they show good neuronal cell ...
    Photothrombotic Induction of Capillary Ischemia in the Mouse Cortex during in vivo Two-Photon Imaging
    Authors:  Robert G. Underly and Andy Y. Shih, date: 07/05/2017, view: 6189, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Photothrombosis of blood vessels refers to the activation of a circulating photosensitive dye with a green light to induce clotting in vivo (Watson et al., 1985). Previous studies have described how a focused green laser could be used to noninvasively occlude pial arterioles and venules at the brain surface (Schaffer et al. ...
    In vitro Assay for Dendritic Spine Retraction of Hippocampal Neurons with Sparse Labeling
    Authors:  Ryohei Iwata and Takuji Iwasato, date: 09/20/2016, view: 6799, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Dendritic spines are the post-synaptic structures that play a central role in excitatory synaptic transmission. Developmental spinogenesis relies on a variety of stimuli such as those derived from cell-cell communication and their downstream signaling. Here, we describe an in vitro assay of dendritic spine retraction using hippocampal ...
    Olfactory Bulb (OB) Transplants
    Authors:  Maria Savvaki and Domna Karagogeos, date: 09/05/2016, view: 5554, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Transplantation in mouse brain slices is a powerful tool in order to study axon targeting and migrational events during development. Taking advantage of donors and recipients belonging to different genotypes, this technique allows researchers to assess the contribution of donor and/or recipient tissue by performing various combinations and to ...
    X-gal Staining on Adult Mouse Brain Sections
    Authors:  Hiroshi Kokubu and Janghoo Lim, date: 03/05/2014, view: 14242, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Knowing expression patterns of given proteins is very important to understand their functions. Immunostaining analysis with specific antibodies is commonly used to identify cells or tissues expressing proteins of interest. Although this technique is regularly used, it requires high quality of specific antibodies and there is no good quality of ...

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