Microbiology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Visualizing Hypoxia in a Murine Model of Candida albicans Infection Using in vivo Biofluorencence
    Authors:  José Pedro Lopes and Constantin F. Urban, date: 08/05/2019, view: 854, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Candida albicans is a leading human fungal pathogen that uses several metabolic adaptations to escape immune cells and causes systemic disease. Here, we describe a protocol for measuring one of these adaptations, the ability to thrive in hypoxic niches. Hypoxia was generated after successful subdermal infection with C. albicans ...
    Use of Gas Chromatography to Quantify Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Serum, Colonic Luminal Content and Feces of Mice
    [Abstract] Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) are a product of the fermentation of resistant starches and dietary fibers by the gut microbiota. The most important SCFA are acetate (C2), propionate (C3) and butyrate (C4). These metabolites are formed and absorbed in the colon and then transported through the hepatic vein to the liver. SCFAs are more concentrated ...
    Transplantation of Fecal Microbiota Shaped by Diet
    Authors:  Keiran H. McLeod, Linda Mason and Eliana Mariño, date: 01/05/2018, view: 4490, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Alterations in diet and gut microbial ecology underlie the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). In the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, we found high concentrations of bacterial metabolites acetate and butyrate in blood and faeces correlated with protection from disease. We reconstituted germ free (GF) NOD mice with fecal bacteria from protected ...
    Oral Microbiome Characterization in Murine Models
    [Abstract] The oral microbiome has been implicated as a trigger for immune responsiveness in the oral cavity, particularly in the setting of the inflammatory disease periodontitis. The protocol presented here is aimed at characterizing the oral microbiome in murine models at steady state and during perturbations of immunity or physiology. Herein, we describe ...
    Multicolor Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) Microscopy to Generate High-resolution Images of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Particles and Infected Cells
    [Abstract] Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in human lung epithelial A549 cells induces filopodia, cellular protrusions consisting of F-actin, that extend to neighboring uninfected cells (Mehedi et al., 2016). High-resolution imaging via stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy revealed filamentous RSV particles along these ...
    Infection of Human Hepatocyte-chimeric Mice with HBV and in vivo Treatment with εRNA
    Authors:  Seiichi Sato, Kai Li and Akinori Takaoka, date: 01/20/2016, view: 4856, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause both acute and chronic disease in human liver with potentially high risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer. The host range of non-human primates susceptible to this virus is limited. Therefore, experimental studies with human hepatocyte-chimeric mice provide an invaluable source of information regarding the biology ...
    TCRβ Clonotype Analysis of EBV and CMV-specific Human CD8+ T Cells
    Authors:  Nening M. Nanlohy, Dan Koning, Esther D. Quakkelaar and Debbie van Baarle, date: 10/05/2015, view: 5022, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol describes the quantification of all expressed T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) gene products within sorted (by flow cytometry) EBV and CMV-specific memory CD8+ T-cell populations using a template-switch anchored reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
    Mouse Models of Uncomplicated and Fatal Malaria
    Authors:  Brian W. Huang, Emily Pearman and Charles C. Kim, date: 07/05/2015, view: 10605, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Mouse models have demonstrated utility in delineating the mechanisms underlying many aspects of malaria immunology and physiology. The most common mouse models of malaria employ the rodent-specific parasite species Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii, and P. chabaudi, which elicit distinct pathologies and immune responses and ...
    Non-invasive Intratracheal Instillation in Mice
    Authors:  Guadalupe Ortiz-Muñoz and Mark R. Looney, date: 06/20/2015, view: 11522, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] The intratracheal instillation technique is used to deliver a variety of agents to the lungs ranging from pathogens (bacteria, viruses), toxins, to therapeutic agents. To model lung inflammation and injury, LPS can be administrated via intranasal, intratracheal, or aerosol approaches. Each technique has its limitations. The intratracheal technique ...
    Two-event Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury Mouse Model
    Authors:  Guadalupe Ortiz-Muñoz and Mark R. Looney, date: 06/20/2015, view: 5554, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined as acute lung injury that occurs within 6 hours of a blood product transfusion. TRALI continues to be a leading cause of transfusion-related mortality and we have developed a mouse model of TRALI to better understand the mechanisms by which injury occurs and to test therapeutic approaches. ...



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