Protocols in Current Issue
    Non-separate Mouse Sclerochoroid/RPE/Retina Staining and Whole Mount for the Integral Observation of Subretinal Layer
    Authors:  Sung-Jin Lee and Soo-Young Kim, date: 01/05/2021, view: 372, Q&A: 0

    The subretinal layer between retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors is a region involved in inflammation and angiogenesis during the procession of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The current protocols of whole mounts (retina and RPE) are unable to address the intact view of the subretinal layer because the

    Quantification of Cutaneous Ionocytes in Small Aquatic Organisms
    Authors:  Garfield T. Kwan, Shane H. Finnerty, Nicholas C. Wegner and Martin Tresguerres, date: 05/05/2019, view: 2770, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Aquatic organisms have specialized cells called ionocytes that regulate the ionic composition, osmolarity, and acid/base status of internal fluids. In small aquatic organisms such as fishes in their early life stages, ionocytes are typically found on the cutaneous surface and their abundance can change to help cope with various metabolic and ...
    Biofilm Assays on Fibrinogen-coated Silicone Catheters and 96-well Polystyrene Plates
    Authors:  Cristina Colomer-Winter, José A. Lemos and Ana L. Flores-Mireles, date: 03/20/2019, view: 3628, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Biofilm formation is a well-known bacterial strategy that protects cells from hostile environments. During infection, bacteria found in a biofilm community are less sensitive to antibiotics and to the immune response, often allowing them to colonize and persist in the host niche. Not surprisingly, biofilm formation on medical devices, such as ...
    Measuring the Endocytic Recycling of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) in Neuro2a Cells
    Authors:  Florent Ubelmann, Tatiana Burrinha and Claudia Guimas Almeida, date: 12/05/2017, view: 5028, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The established primary trigger of Alzheimer’s disease’s is β-amyloid (Aβ) (Mucke and Selkoe, 2012). Amyloid precursor protein (APP) endocytosis is required for Aβ generation at early endosomes (Rajendran and Annaert, 2012). APP retention at endosomes also depends on its recycling back to the plasma membrane (Koo et al., 1996; Ubelmann et ...
    Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Authors:  Takashi Yamano and Hideya Fukuzawa, date: 07/05/2016, view: 9236, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Determining the protein localization is essential to elucidate its in vivo function. Fluorescence-tagged proteins are widely used for it, but it is sometimes difficult to express tagged proteins in Chlamydomonas. Alternatively, indirect immunofluorescence assay is also one of the widely used methods and many reports determining ...
    Immunolocalization of Proteins in Corals: the V-type H+-ATPase Proton Pump
    Authors:  Katie L. Barott and Martin Tresguerres, date: 09/05/2015, view: 8154, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Here we describe the immunolocalization of a membrane-bound proton pump, the V-type H+-ATPase (VHA), in tissues and isolated cells of scleractinian corals. Immunolocalization of coral proteins requires additional steps not required for various model organisms, such as decalcification of the coral skeleton for immunohistochemistry or ...
    Combined in situ Hybridization/Immunohistochemistry (ISH/IH) on Free-floating Vibratome Tissue Sections
    Author:  Manuel E. Lopez, date: 09/20/2014, view: 11590, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In situ hybridization and immunostaining are common techniques for localizing gene expression, the mRNA and protein respectively, within tissues. Both techniques can be applied to tissue sections to achieve similar goals, but in some cases, it is necessary to use them together. For example, complement C1q is a secreted protein complex ...
    Immuno-EM Analysis of PF13_0191-GFP Expressing Parasites
    Authors:  Arlett Heiber, Silke Retzlaff and Tobias Spielmann, date: 06/05/2014, view: 7841, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol was used to prepare pre-embedding samples of Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites that overexpressed the parasite protein PF13_0191 tagged with GFP. Using GFP-specific antibodies and Protein A-Gold the localisation of the overexpressed protein in the infected host cell was determined using standard transmission ...
    Immunostaining Protocol: P-Smad2 (Xenograft and Mice)
    [Abstract] Metastasis depends on a gene program expressed by the tumor microenvironment upon TGF-beta stimulation. CRC (Colorectal cancer) cell lines did not induce robust stromal TGF-beta responses when injected into nude mice as shown by lack of p-SMAD2 accumulation in tumor-associated stromal cells. To enforce high TGF-beta signaling in xenografts, we ...
    Immunostaining Protocol: P-Stat3 (Xenograft and Mice)
    [Abstract] We sought to understand the mechanisms behind the potent effect of stromal TGF-beta program on the capacity of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to initiate metastasis. We discovered that mice subcutaneous tumors and metastases generated in the context of a TGF-beta activated microenvironment displayed prominent accumulation of p-STAT3 in CRC cells ...

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