Protocols in Current Issue
    Quantitative Determination of Ca2+-binding to Ca2+-sensor Proteins by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry
    Authors:  Seher Abbas and Karl-Wilhelm Koch, date: 04/05/2020, view: 927, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Diverse and complex molecular recognitions are central elements of signal transduction cascades. The strength and nature of these interaction modes can be determined by different experimental approaches. Among those, Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) offers certain advantages by providing binding constants and thermodynamic parameters from ...
    Cation (Ca2+ and Mn2+) Partitioning Assays with Intact Arabidopsis Chloroplasts
    Authors:  Anna Harms, Iris Steinberger and Anja Schneider, date: 01/05/2017, view: 5792, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Determination of the relative distribution of Ca2+ and Mn2+ is an important tool for analyzing mutants showing altered levels of calcium and/or manganese transporters in the chloroplast envelope or thylakoid membrane. The method described in this protocol allows quantitative analyses of the relative distribution of calcium ...
    Cytohistochemical Determination of Calcium Deposition in Plant Cells
    Authors:  Wan-Jun Zhang and Tao Wang, date: 01/20/2016, view: 5484, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Calcium plays important roles in maintaining plant cellular structure and also acts as a key secondary messenger in intercellular signaling. Thirty years ago, methods of detecting calcium in sub-cellular level had been established (Stockwell and Hanchey, 1982; Borgers et al., 1982) and reviewed extensively (Wick and Heplerm, 1982). We had ...
    A Protocol to Measure the Cytoplasmic Calcium in Arabidopsis Guard Cells
    Authors:  Li Li, Feng Lin, Yana Qu and Qun Zhang, date: 05/05/2015, view: 7884, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) acts as a stimulus-induced second messenger in multiple signal transduction cascades (Allen et al., 1999). In plant cells, a dramatic and readily assayed response to stimulus is the change of stomatal aperture. Changes in [Ca2+]cyt of stomatal guard cells were ...
    In vitro Biomineralization Assay
    Authors:  Kyunghee Lee, Minsuk Kwon and Daewon Jeong, date: 02/05/2014, view: 14460, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Biomineralization in vertebrates has both physiological and pathological aspects. Physiological mineralization is essential for proper development and function of hard tissues, such as bone, teeth, and growth plate cartilage, but it does not occur in soft tissues. Pathological ectopic mineralization, in contrast, occurs in soft tissues, including ...
    Determination of the Intracellular Calcium Concentration in Peritoneal Macrophages Using Microfluorimetry
    [Abstract] Calcium is one of the most important intracellular messengers in biological systems. Ca2+ microfluorimetry is a valuable tool to assess information about mechanisms involved in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels in research on cells and in living tissues. In essence, the use of a dye that fluoresces in the presence ...

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