Protocols in Current Issue
    Extraction, Purification and Quantification of Diffusible Signal Factor Family Quorum-sensing Signal Molecules in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae
    Authors:  Lian Zhou, Xing-Yu Wang, Wei Zhang, Shuang Sun and Ya-Wen He, date: 03/20/2017, view: 5822, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Bacteria use quorum-sensing (QS) systems to monitor and regulate their population density. Bacterial QS involves small molecules that act as signals for bacterial communication. Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use a class of widely conserved molecules, called diffusible signal factor (DSF) family QS signals. The measurement of DSF family ...
    Rice Root Organic Acid Efflux Measurement by Using Ion Chromatography
    Authors:  Chun-quan Zhu, Xiao-fang Zhu and Ren-fang Shen, date: 02/20/2017, view: 4867, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Organic acids secreted from plant roots play important roles in various biological processes including nutrient acquisition, metal detoxification, and pathogen attraction. The secretion of organic acids may be affected by various conditions such as plant growth stage, nutrient deficiency, and abiotic stress. For example, when white lupin (Lupinus ...
    Cell Wall-bound p-Coumaric and Ferulic Acid Analysis
    Author:  Nickolas Anderson, date: 10/05/2016, view: 4443, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Hydroxycinnamic acids, such as p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, are a major class of compounds derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. These compounds are widely conserved in plants and primarily accumulate in the secondary cell wall. They serve as important structural components that contribute to the overall strength and rigidity of ...
    Quantification of 2-Hydroxyglutarate Enantiomers by Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry
    Authors:  William M. Oldham and Joseph Loscalzo, date: 08/20/2016, view: 6624, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Two enantiomers of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), L (L2HG) and D (D2HG), are metabolites of unknown function in mammalian cells that were initially associated with separate and rare inborn errors of metabolism resulting in increased urinary excretion of 2HG linked to neurological deficits in children (Chalmers et al., 1980; Duran et al ...
    HPLC Analysis of Secreted Organic Acids
    Authors:  Fiona K. Davies, Sarah D’Adamo and Matthew C. Posewitz, date: 04/20/2016, view: 6929, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Under certain growth conditions some microorganisms secrete organic acids into the extracellular medium to relieve the accumulation of excess energy carriers, and/or to reduce toxic concentrations of organic acids. For example, a glycogen-deficient ∆glgC mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 secretes pyruvate, ...
    Citrus Fruit Ascorbic Acid Extraction and Quantification by HPLC
    Authors:  Enriqueta Alós, Joanna Lado, María Jesús Rodrigo and Lorenzo Zacarías, date: 03/05/2015, view: 11962, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Citrus are among the most relevant sources of vitamin C (ascorbic acid + dehydroascorbic acid). Recent studies have revealed that it increases in the peel as fruit ripens and remains constant or even decreases in the pulp tissue. Moreover, important differences on ascorbic acid content exist among citrus varieties in both tissues. Here we describe ...
    Evaluation of Caspase-1 Activation and IL-1β Production in A Kainic Acid Microdyalisis Brain Injury Model
    [Abstract] Intracerebral infusion of kainic acid (KA) by a microdialysis probe induces a focal swelling in the brain-perfused area which promotes inflammation (Compan et al., 2012; Oprica et al., 2003). The microdialysis technique allows the local in vivo perfusion of KA and the simultaneous collection of inflammatory mediators, ...

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