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0 Q&A 8528 Views Aug 20, 2017
Diagnostic assays for pathogen identification and characterization are limited either by the number of simultaneously detectable targets, which rely on multiplexing methods, or by time constraints due to cultivation-based techniques. We recently presented a 100-plex method for human pathogen characterization to identify 75 bacterial and fungal species as well as 33 clinically relevant β-lactamases (Barišić et al., 2016). By using 16S rRNA gene sequences as barcode elements in the padlock probes, and two different fluorescence channels for species and antibiotic resistance identification, we managed to cut the number of microarray probes needed by half. Consequently, we present here the protocol of an assay with a runtime of approx. 8 h and a detection limit of 105 cfu ml-1. A total of 89% of β-lactamases and 93.7% of species were identified correctly.
0 Q&A 9888 Views Oct 20, 2012
One major mechanism of phase variable gene expression in prokaryotes is through inversion of the promoter element for a gene or operon. This protocol describes how to detect the promoter orientation of a phase-variable gene by PCR. This protocol, including primer design, is specific to detection of the promoter orientations of hyxR, a LuxR-like response regulator in Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) isolates (Bateman and Seed, 2012); however, this protocol can be generalized to other organisms and genes to discriminate prokaryotic promoter inversions by PCR through size discrimination of the amplification products. Expression of hyxR is regulated through bidirectional phase inversion of the upstream promoter region mediated by a member of the family of site-specific tyrosine recombinases called Fim-like recombinases. The recombinases recognize inverted DNA repeat sequences flanking the promoter and produce a genomic rearrangement, orientating the promoter in favor or disfavor of gene expression.

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