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0 Q&A 4109 Views Aug 5, 2022

Detecting protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is one of the most used approaches to reveal the molecular regulation of protein of interests (POIs). Immunoprecipitation of POIs followed by mass spectrometry or western blot analysis enables us to detect co-precipitated POI-binding proteins. However, some binding proteins are lost during cell lysis or immunoprecipitation if the protein binding affinity is weak. Crosslinking POI and its binding proteins stabilizes the PPI and increases the chance of detecting the interacting proteins. Here, we introduce the method of DSP (dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate))-mediated crosslinking, followed by tandem immunoprecipitation (FLAG and HA tags). The eluted proteins interacting with POI can be analyzed by mass spectrometry or western blotting. This method has the potential to be applied to various cytoplasmic proteins.

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0 Q&A 1707 Views Feb 20, 2022
Malaria remains a major public health issue, infecting nearly 220 million people every year. The spread of drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum around the world threatens the progress made against this disease. Therefore, identifying druggable and essential pathways in P. falciparum parasites remains a major area of research. One poorly understood area of parasite biology is the formation of disulfide bonds, which is an essential requirement for the folding of numerous proteins. Specialized chaperones with thioredoxin (Trx) domains catalyze the redox functions necessary for breaking incorrect and forming correct disulfide bonds in proteins. Defining the substrates of these redox chaperones is difficult and immunoprecipitation based assays cannot distinguish between substrates and interacting partners. Further, the substrate or client interactions with the redox chaperones are usually transient in nature. Activity based crosslinkers that rely on the nucleophilic cysteines on Trx domains and the disulfide bond forming cysteines on clients provide an easily scalable method to trap and identify the substrates of Trx-domain containing chaperones. The cell permeable crosslinker divinyl sulfone (DVSF) is active only in the presence of nucleophilic cysteines in proteins and, therefore, traps Trx domains with their substrates, as they form mixed disulfide bonds during the course of their catalytic activity. This allows the identification of substrates that rely on Trx activity for their folding, as well as discovering small molecules that interfere with Trx domain activity.

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Identification of thioredoxin domain substrates via divinylsulfone crosslinking and immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry.
0 Q&A 2545 Views Feb 5, 2022

Probing the molecular interactions of viral-host protein complexes to understand pathogenicity is essential in modern virology to help the development of antiviral therapies. Common binding assays, such as co-immunoprecipitation or pull-downs, are helpful in investigating intricate viral-host proteins interactions. However, such assays may miss low-affinity and favour non-specific interactions. We have recently incorporated photoreactive amino acids at defined residues of a viral protein in vivo, by introducing amber stop codons (TAG) and using a suppressor tRNA. This is followed by UV-crosslinking, to identify interacting host proteins in live mammalian cells. The affinity-purified photo-crosslinked viral-host protein complexes are further characterized by mass spectrometry following extremely stringent washes. This combinatorial site-specific incorporation of a photoreactive amino acid and affinity purification-mass spectrometry strategy allows the definition of viral-host protein contacts at single residue resolution and greatly reduces non-specific interactors, to facilitate characterization of viral-host protein interactions.

Graphic abstract:

Schematic overview of the virus-host interaction assay based on an amber suppression approach.

Mammalian cells grown in Bpa-supplemented medium are co-transfected with plasmids encoding viral sequences carrying a Flag tag, a (TAG) stop codon at the desired position, and an amber suppressor tRNA (tRNACUA)/aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (aaRS) orthogonal pair. Cells are then exposed to UV, to generate protein-protein crosslinks, followed by immunoprecipitation with anti-Flag magnetic beads. The affinity-purified crosslinks are probed by western blot using an anti-Flag antibody and the crosslinked host proteins are characterised by mass spectrometry.

0 Q&A 12495 Views Jun 5, 2019
Extracellular expression is essential for the function of secreted and cell surface proteins. Proper intracellular trafficking depends on protein interactions in multiple subcellular compartments. Co-immunoprecipitation and the yeast two-hybrid system are commonly used to investigate protein-protein interactions. These methods, however, depend on high-affinity protein interactions. In many glycoproteins, glycans are important for protein intracellular trafficking and extracellular expression. If glycoprotein interactions are transient and relatively weak, it may be challenging to use co-immunoprecipitation or the two-hybrid system to identify glycoprotein-binding partners. To circumvent this problem, protein cross-linking can be applied first to immobilize the transient and/or low-affinity protein interactions. Here we describe a protocol of protein cross-linking, co-immunoprecipitation, and proteomic analysis, which was used to identify endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones critical for the folding and ER exiting of N-glycosylated serine proteases in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. This approach can be used to identify other protein interactions in a variety of cells.
0 Q&A 6544 Views Mar 20, 2018
Nucleosomes are the fundamental unit of eukaryotic chromosome packaging, comprised of 147 bp of DNA wrapped around two molecules of each of the core histone proteins H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Nucleosomes are symmetrical, with one axis of symmetry centered on the homodimeric interaction between the C-termini of the H3 molecules. To explore the functional consequences of nucleosome symmetry, we designed an obligate pair of H3 heterodimers, termed H3X and H3Y, allowing us to compare cells with single or double H3 alterations. Our biochemical validation of the heterodimeric X-Y interaction included intra-nucleosomal H3 crosslinking using dimethyl suberimidate (DMS). Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the use of DMS to analyze yeast nucleosomes.
0 Q&A 7882 Views Feb 20, 2018
Formaldehyde crosslinking is widely used in combination with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to measure the locations along DNA and relative levels of transcription factor (TF)-DNA interactions in vivo. However, the measurements that are typically made do not provide unambiguous information about the dynamic properties of these interactions. We have developed a method to estimate binding kinetic parameters from time-dependent formaldehyde crosslinking data, called crosslinking kinetics (CLK) analysis. Cultures of yeast cells are crosslinked with formaldehyde for various periods of time, yielding the relative ChIP signal at particular loci. We fit the data using the mass-action CLK model to extract kinetic parameters of the TF-chromatin interaction, including the on- and off-rates and crosslinking rate. From the on- and off-rate we obtain the occupancy and residence time. The following protocol is the second iteration of this method, CLKv2, updated with improved crosslinking and quenching conditions, more information about crosslinking rates, and systematic procedures for modeling the observed kinetic regimes. CLKv2 analysis has been applied to investigate the binding behavior of the TATA-binding protein (TBP), and a selected subset of other TFs. The protocol was developed using yeast cells, but may be applicable to cells from other organisms as well.
0 Q&A 9660 Views May 20, 2017
RNA metabolism is tightly controlled across different tissues and developmental stages, and its dysregulation is one of the molecular hallmarks of cancer. Through direct binding to specific sequence element(s), RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play a pivotal role in co- and post-transcriptional RNA regulatory events. We have recently demonstrated that, in pancreatic cancer cells, acquisition of a drug resistant (DR)-phenotype relied on upregulation of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1), which in turn is recruited to the pyruvate kinase pre-mRNA and favors splicing of the oncogenic PKM2 variant. Herein, we describe a step-by-step protocol of the ultraviolet (UV) light cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) method to determine the direct binding of an RBP to specific regions of its target RNAs in adherent human cell lines.
1 Q&A 25089 Views Nov 5, 2012
Because covalent bond can form between RNA and its binding proteins after UV irradiation, UV cross-linking is widely used to identify the specific RNA binding proteins. This protocol is described in details as follows.

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