Biochemistry


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0 Q&A 899 Views Feb 20, 2023

Far-western blotting, derived from the western blot, has been used to detect interactions between proteins in vitro, such as receptor–ligand interactions. The insulin signaling pathway plays a critical role in the regulation of both metabolism and cell growth. The binding of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) to the insulin receptor is essential for the propagation of downstream signaling after the activation of the insulin receptor by insulin. Here, we describe a step-by-step far-western blotting protocol for determining the binding of IRS to the insulin receptor.

0 Q&A 5655 Views Jun 20, 2019
Protein analysis in bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma (MM) has been limited by the low concentration of proteins obtained after CD138+ cell selection. A novel approach based on capillary nano-immunoassay could make it possible to quantify dozens of proteins from each CD138+ purified MM sample in an automated manner. Up to now, the knowledge of protein level in those cells was limited because a relatively small quantity of sample is available after the diagnostic procedure. Moreover, the sample often is required for nucleic acids analysis. We have developed the procedure for obtaining proteins from bone marrow samples preserved in RLT+ buffer, and we have successfully applied this approach for the quantification of proteins in the setting of patients with MM. Proteins are extracted from RLT+ buffer, the content is quantified by total protein assay with WES machine and finally, the particular protein expression level is evaluated using specific antibodies by capillary nano-immunoassay with WES machine. The present protocol enables us to quantify many proteins from a limited amount of sample, without losing the opportunity to obtain nucleic acids at the same time. Proteins are quantified automatically in an assay with a low probability of human errors, which makes it a useful tool for biomarkers development.
0 Q&A 5010 Views Jun 5, 2019
The recent discovery of human signal peptide peptidase-like 2a (SPPL2a) deficiency in humans revealed the toxicity associated with the accumulation of one of its substrates, CD74 N-terminal fragment (CD74-NTF), for certain type of dendritic cells (cDC2). We developed a two-step protocol for monitoring the accumulation of this molecule in different subsets of PBMCs and immortalized B cells, in which SPPL2a is chemically inhibited and CD74-NTF levels are then assessed by flow cytometry or western blotting. The chemical inhibition of SPPL2a has been described elsewhere, but this is the first time that this inhibition has been reported as a protocol.
0 Q&A 6924 Views Jan 5, 2018
Quantitative analysis of proteins secreted from the cells poses a challenge due to their low abundance and the interfering presence of a large amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the cell culture media. We established assays for detection of mutant huntingtin (mHtt) secreted from Neuro2A cell line stably expressing mHtt and rat primary cortical neurons by Western blotting. Our protocol is based on reducing the amounts of BSA in the media while maintaining cell viability and secretory potential, and concentrating the media prior to analysis by means of ultrafiltration.
0 Q&A 8147 Views Oct 20, 2016
This protocol describes the procedure of visualizing secreted Wnt5 protein in serum free media via western blotting. This procedure can also be used to visualize other secreted proteins larger than 10,000 daltons. The work presented in this paper visualizes Wnt5 secreted by mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF), but can be adapted to other cell lines including those transiently transfected by plasmids.
0 Q&A 7697 Views Aug 5, 2015
Among the seven serines and one threonine in the carboxyl-terminus of HBV C protein, all but one (serine 183) appear in the context of RxxS/T consensus phosphoacceptor motifs and also overlap with other consensus motifs, such as S/TP, RS, SPRRR, RRRS/T, or RRxS/T, suggesting that various cellular kinases phosphorylate these residues. To determine whether threonine and/or serine (serines 157, 164, 170, 172, 178, and 180, and threonine 162, adw subtype) of HBV C protein are indeed phosphoacceptor residues in cells, Huh7 were transfected with a series of C-protein-expressing mutants, labeled with 32P-orthophosphate for 14 h, and then lysed. The 32Pi-labeled lysates were immunoprecipitated with anti-HBc antibody, and the 32Pi-labeled immunoprecipitated C proteins were detected by autoradiography.
1 Q&A 17339 Views Apr 5, 2015
Immunoprecipitation (IP) is a biochemical technique to precipitate a protein out of solution using an antigen that can specifically bind to that protein. IP can be performed to isolate and concentrate one particular protein from a sample of thousands of different proteins. IP is also readily performed to pull down interacting proteins of complexes out of solution. This protocol outlines the methods used to IP proteins in whole worm lysates and their preparation for detection on Western blots using denaturing conditions.
0 Q&A 8682 Views Apr 5, 2015
Bacterial glycoproteins are of increasing interest due to their abundance in nature and importance in health and infectious diseases. However, only a very small fraction of bacterial glycoproteins have been characterized and its post-translational modification machinery identified. While analysis of glycoproteins can be achieved through various techniques, this is often limited by the specific characteristics of individual proteins such as type and level of glycosylation. Lectins are sugar-binding proteins that recognize specific glycoconjugates in a manner similar to antigen-antibody interactions. Here, we describe a simple method for the detection of glycoproteins using lectin-based Western blot analysis, which can be applied to different organisms and coupled with various other strategies for complementary analysis.
0 Q&A 8497 Views Sep 20, 2014
It is becoming increasingly apparent that stress signalling is important for tolerance of fungal species to antifungal chemicals and proteins. The high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway responds to a number of stressors including osmotic and oxidative stress. This protocol describes a method to detect activation of the Candida albicans (C. albicans) MAPK Hog1 by monitoring its phosphorylation in response to an antifungal protein.
0 Q&A 10763 Views Aug 20, 2014
The complement component C3 is the major effector molecule of the complement system. C3 circulates in the blood and interstitial fluids as pro-enzyme and is activated by enzymatic cleavage into a C3a portion, a classic anaphylatoxin that functions as chemoattractant and immune cell activator, and the C3b portion, the body’s most potent opsonin. C3 cleavage is in most cases mediated by an enzyme complex called the C3 convertase. However, it is now becoming increasingly clear that the cleavage of C3 by a range of ‘single’ proteases into bioactive C3a and C3b fragments is of high physiological significance. Here, we describe a protocol for the enzymatic cleavage of human C3 by the serine protease cathepsin L and the detection of the cleavage products C3a and C3b by western blotting as an example for this kind of enzymatic reactions.



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