Cancer Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 3173 Views Dec 5, 2020
Three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroids have the potential to bridge the gap between two-dimensional (2D) monolayer tumor cell cultures and solid tumors with which they share a significant degree of similarity. However, the progression of solid tumors is often influenced by the dynamic and reciprocal interactions between tumor and immune cells. Here we present a 3D tumor spheroid-based model that might shed new light on understanding the mechanisms of tumor and immune cell interactions. The model first utilizes the hanging drop assay, which serves as one of the simplest methods for generating 3D spheroids and requires no specialized equipment. Next, pre-established spheroids can be co-cultured either directly or indirectly with an immune cell population of interest. Using skin melanoma, we provide a detailed description of the model, which might hold a significant importance for the development of successful therapeutic strategies.
0 Q&A 7056 Views Jan 5, 2019
Inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes can give rise to distinct mononuclear myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment, such as monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSC), immature macrophages, M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), M1-like TAMs or monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs). This protocol describes a method to assess the fate and recruitment of inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes in the tumor microenvironment.
1 Q&A 12765 Views Aug 20, 2016
Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a subset of granulocytes (immature myeloid cells) that exploit a variety of mechanism to modulate the innate and adaptive immune system. MDSCs are present normally in the body, but their numbers increase during inflammation and in cancer, promoting an immunosuppressive microenvironment. In addition to MDSCs, macrophages also play an important role during cancer development. There are two subsets of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs): M1 and M2. M1 are “anti-tumor” macrophages that are activated by interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and/or Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and secrete high amount of interleukin 12 (IL-12) thereby inducing a Th1 anti-tumor immune response. M2 or “pro-tumorigenic” macrophages are activated by interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) and secrete large amounts of IL-10, which promotes tumor progression (Gabrilovich et al., 2012).

Interaction between MDSCs and macrophages in the tumor microenvironment was shown to enhance immune suppression mediated by these subsets. MDSCs influence TAMs by producing IL-10 that, in turn, induces a down-regulation of IL-12 and polarizes M1 into M2 macrophages. In our study, we use the following protocol to evaluate the ability of tumor induced MDSCs to polarize LPS activated M1 into M2 macrophages (Vences-Catalan et al., 2015). This protocol was adapted from a previous study (Sinha et al., 2007).

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