Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 14338 Views Sep 5, 2017
Mosquito-transmitted pathogens cause major public health problems and contribute substantially to the global burden of disease. Aedes mosquitoes transmit dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and Chikungunya viruses; Culex mosquitoes transmit West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses, among others. Experiments utilizing laboratory-reared colonized mosquitoes can address many issues such as vector biology, vector competence, vector-pathogen interaction, and vector control. The establishment of healthy and standardized mosquito colonies requires generation and implementation of protocols, attention to detail, and an understanding of the factors that affect mosquito fitness, such as temperature and humidity, nutrient quality and availability, population density, blood feeding and mating behavior, and egg-laying requirements. Here, we present a standard protocol for the rearing of Culex spp. and Aedes spp. mosquitoes and maintenance of the mosquito colony.
2 Q&A 17420 Views Jul 20, 2017
Mosquito-transmitted pathogens are among the leading causes of severe disease and death in humans. Components within the saliva of mosquito vectors facilitate blood feeding, modulate host responses, and allow efficient transmission of pathogens, such as Dengue, Zika, yellow fever, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and chikungunya viruses, as well as Plasmodium parasites, among others. Here, we describe standardized methods to assess the impact of mosquito-derived factors on immune responses and pathogenesis in mouse models of infection. This protocol includes the generation of mosquito salivary gland extracts and intradermal inoculation of mouse ears. Ultimately, the information obtained from using these techniques can help reveal fundamental mechanisms of interaction between pathogens, mosquito vectors, and the mammalian host. In addition, this protocol can help establish improved infection challenge models for pre-clinical testing of vaccines or therapeutics that take into account the natural route of transmission via mosquitoes.
0 Q&A 8273 Views Mar 20, 2016
Fluorescent matrix degradation assay is a popular and widely used assay in the field of invadopodium biology (Artym et al., 2009). Matrix remodeling and degradation can be observed under both physiological and pathological conditions. Cancer cells extensively remodel and degrade the underlying matrix by employing actin-rich protrusive structures called invadosomes. Similar structures are formed by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica), upon coming in contact with fibronectin, a major component of the host (extracellular matrix) ECM. Here, we describe a similar assay to measure matrix degradation by Entamoeba histolytica.

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