Cancer Biology


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0 Q&A 7675 Views Jul 5, 2018
One fundamental property of the TNR receptor (TNFR) family relates to how ‘signal quality’ (the extent of receptor ligation or cross-linking) influences the outcome of receptor ligation, for instance the induction of death in tumour cells. It is unequivocal that membrane-presented ligand (delivered to target cells via cell-surface presentation by co-culture with ligand-expressing third-party cells) induces a greater extent of carcinoma cell death in vitro in comparison to non-cross-linked agonists (agonistic antibodies and/or recombinant ligands). The CD40 receptor epitomises this fundamental property of TNF receptor-ligand interactions, as the extent of CD40 cross-linking dictates cell fate. Membrane-presented CD40 ligand (mCD40L), but not soluble agonists (e.g., agonistic anti-CD40 antibody), induces high level of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and causes extensive cell death (apoptosis) in malignant (but not normal) epithelial cells. In this article, we describe a co-culture system for the activation of CD40 by mCD40L and subsequent detection of various features of apoptosis (including cell membrane permeabilisation, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation) as well as detection of intracellular mediators of cell death (including adaptor proteins, pro-apoptotic kinases and reactive oxygen species, ROS).
0 Q&A 9183 Views Jan 5, 2017
Apoptosis or programmed cell death is important for multicellular organisms to keep cell homeostasis and for the clearance of mutated or infected cells. Apoptosis can be induced by intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli. The first event in extrinsic apoptosis is the formation of the Death-Inducing Signalling Complex (DISC), where the initiator caspases-8 and -10 are fully activated by several proteolytic cleavage steps and induce the caspase cascade leading to apoptotic cell death. Analysing the processing of procaspases-8 and -10 by Western blot is a commonly used method to study the induction of apoptosis by death receptor stimulation. To analyse procaspase-8 and -10 cleavage, cells are stimulated with a death ligand for different time intervals, lysed and subjected to Western blot analysis using anti-caspase-8 and anti-caspase-10 antibodies. This allows monitoring the caspase cleavage products and thereby induction of apoptosis.
1 Q&A 33427 Views Mar 20, 2013
This assay is used to count the number of cells that have undergone apoptosis. Apoptosis will be detected by initially staining the cells with Annexin V and propidium iodide solution followed by flow cytometry analysis. It is based on the principle that normal cells are hydrophobic in nature as they express phosphatidyl serine in the inner membrane (side facing the cytoplasm) and when the cells undergo apoptosis, the inner membrane flips to become the outer membrane, thus exposing phosphatidyl serine. The exposed phosphatidyl serine is detected by Annexin V, and propidium iodide stains the necrotic cells, which have leaky DNA content that help to differentiate the apoptotic and necrotic cells.



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