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0 Q&A 4342 Views Feb 5, 2021

Over the last decade, it has been noticed that microbial pathogens and pests deliver small RNA (sRNA) effectors into their host plants to manipulate plant physiology and immunity for infection, known as cross kingdom RNA interference. In this process, fungal and oomycete parasite sRNAs hijack the plant ARGONAUTE (AGO)/RNA-induced silencing complex to post-transcriptionally silence host target genes. We hereby describe the methodological details of how we recovered cross kingdom sRNA effectors of the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis during infection of its host plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This Bio-protocol contains two parts: first, a detailed description on the procedure of plant AGO/sRNA co-immunopurification and sRNA recovery for Illumina high throughput sequencing analysis. Second, we explain how to perform bioinformatics analysis of sRNA sequence reads using a Galaxy server. In principle, this protocol is suitable to investigate AGO-bound sRNAs from diverse host plants and plant-interacting (micro)organisms.

1 Q&A 10771 Views Oct 20, 2017
RNA-Protein interactions play important roles in various eukaryotic biological processes. Molecular imaging of subcellular localization of RNA/protein complexes in plants is critical for understanding these interactions. However, methods to image RNA-Protein interactions in living plants have not yet been developed until now. Recently, we have developed a trimolecular fluorescence complementation (TriFC) system for in vivo visualization of RNA-Protein interaction by transient expression in tobacco leaves. In this method, we combined conventional bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) system with MS2 system (phage MS2 coat protein [MCP] and its binding RNA sequence [MS2 sequence]) (Schonberger et al., 2012). Target RNA is tagged with 6xMS2 and MCP and RNA binding protein are fused with YFP fragments. DNA constructs encoding such fusion RNA and proteins are infiltrated into tobacco leaves with Agrobacterium suspensions. RNA-Protein interaction in vivo is observed by confocal microscope.
5 Q&A 28881 Views Nov 20, 2013
RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play a crucial role in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level at multiple steps including pre-mRNA splicing, polyadenylation, mRNA stability, mRNA localization and translation. RBPs regulate these processes primarily by binding to specific sequence elements in nascent or mature transcripts. There are several hundreds of RBPs in plants, but the targets of most of them are unknown. A variety of experimental methods have been developed to identify targets of an RBP. These include RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) and many variations of CLIP (e.g. PAR-CLIP, iCLIP). These approaches depend on immunoprecipitation of RNAs bound to a specific RBP using an antibody to that RBP. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), also called gel shift assay, has been used to analyze protein-nucleic acid interactions. It is a simple and powerful method to analyze protein-RNA/DNA interactions. In RNA EMSA, RNA-protein complexes are visualized by comparing the migration of RNA in the presence of a protein. Generally, in RNA EMSA a specific RNA sequence is used to analyze its interaction with a protein. In vitro transcribed 32P labeled or chemically synthesized RNA with a fluorescent tag is incubated with or without the protein of interest and the reaction mixture is then run on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RNA-Protein complexes migrate slowly as compared to free RNA, which can be visualized using an imaging system. In addition to test binding of an RBP to RNA, EMSA is also used to map the region in RNA and/or protein that is involved in interaction. Furthermore, the binding affinity can also be quantified using EMSA.



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