Protocols in Current Issue
    Multiplexing Thermotaxis Behavior Measurement in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Authors:  Stephan Raiders, Mason Klein and Aakanksha Singhvi, date: 04/05/2022, view: 684, Q&A: 0

    Thermotaxis behaviors in C. elegans exhibit experience-dependent plasticity of thermal preference memory. This behavior can be assayed either at population level, on linear temperature gradients, or at the individual animal level, by radial isothermal or microfluidic tracking of orientation. These behaviors are low-throughput as well as

    Operant Self-medication for Assessment of Spontaneous Pain Relief and Drug Abuse Liability in Mouse Models of Chronic Pain

    The search for safe and efficient chronic pain treatments is dampened by the lack of reliable models that faithfully reproduce current pharmacological treatments for chronic spontaneous pain in humans. Preclinical models often assess the antinociceptive efficacy of non-contingent pharmacological treatments evaluated in the short-term. Here, we

    Whole-mount Staining of Mouse Diaphragm Neuromuscular Junctions
    Authors:  Rula Sha, Zhenzhen Wang, Xue You, Yuguo Liu, Zhiqin Xie and Ying Feng, date: 11/05/2021, view: 1100, Q&A: 0

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse that connects the terminal end of a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber. Defects in NMJ cause abnormalities of neuromuscular transmission, leading to NMJ disorders. The mammalian diaphragm muscle is essential for respiration and has been widely used to study NMJ formation. Here, we

    An Improved Method for Individual Tracking of Voluntary Wheel Running in Pair-housed Juvenile Mice
    Authors:  David A. Valientes, Anthony M. Raus and Autumn S. lvy, date: 07/05/2021, view: 1773, Q&A: 0

    Rodent cages equipped with access to a voluntary running wheel are commonly used to study the effects of aerobic physical activity on physiology and behavior. Notable discoveries in exercise neurobiology, including the key role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neural plasticity and cognition, have been made using rodents housed with

    Evaluating Baseline and Sensitised Heat Nociception in Adult Drosophila
    Authors:  Josephine N. Massingham, Olga Baron and G. Gregory Neely, date: 07/05/2021, view: 1372, Q&A: 0

    Chronic pain is a complex disease that affects a large proportion of the population. With little to no effective treatments currently available for patients, this malady presents a large burden to society. Drosophila melanogaster has been previously used to describe conserved molecular components of nociception in larvae and adults. However, adult

    Objective Quantitation of Focal Sweating Areas Using a Mouse Sweat-assay Model
    Authors:  Choongjin Ban and Dae-Hyuk Kwoen, date: 06/05/2021, view: 1913, Q&A: 0

    In vivo sweat quantitation assays are required for the development of drugs for the management of focal hyperhidrosis before clinical trials; however, in vivo assays, particularly mouse models, are rare. Even in sweat assays using mice, sweating is quantitated by manually counting the number of sweating spots, which can contribute to various

    Long-term Devocalization of Zebra Finches
    Authors:  Yunbok Kim, Daisuke Mizuguchi and Satoshi Kojima, date: 09/20/2020, view: 2627, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Songbirds, such as the zebra finch, are a popular animal model for studying the neural basis of vocal and complex skill learning. Adult male zebra finches produce courtship song toward females (referred to as ‘directed song’) and recording and analyzing sounds of directed song along with underlying neural activity is important for investigating ...
    Sequential Reaching Task for the Study of Motor Skills in Monkeys
    Authors:  Machiko Ohbayashi and Nathalie Picard, date: 08/20/2020, view: 1993, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The ability to perform a sequence of movements is a key component of motor skills, such as typing or playing a musical instrument. How the brain binds elementary movements together into meaningful actions has been a topic of much interest. Here, we describe two sequential reaching tasks that we use to investigate the neural substrate of skilled ...
    A Reproducible Protocol to Measure the Critical Swimming Speed of Adult Zebrafish
    Authors:  Yuma Wakamatsu, Makoto Kashima and Hiromi Hirata, date: 08/20/2020, view: 3464, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] The quantitative measurement of water flow-induced swimming of fish species using a swimmill is a powerful method to evaluate motor ability of individual fish. Zebrafish is a commonly used vertebrate that enables the study of morphological, physiological and behavioral characteristics associated with genes. We here established a reproducible ...
    Precise Targeting of Single Microelectrodes to Orientation Pinwheel Centers
    Authors:  Xue Mei Song, Ming Li, Tao Xu, Dewen Hu and Anna Wang Roe, date: 06/05/2020, view: 1968, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In the mammalian visual system, early stages of visual form perception begin with orientation selective neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). In many species (including humans, monkeys, tree shrews, cats, and ferrets), these neurons are organized in pinwheel-like orientation columns. To study the functional organization within orientation ...

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