Cancer Biology


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1 Q&A 5483 Views Jun 5, 2021

Flow cytometry is a popular laser-based technology that allows the phenotypic and functional characterization of individual cells in a high-throughput manner. Here, we describe a detailed procedure for preparing a single-cell suspension from mammary tumors of the mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma middle T (MMTV-PyMT) and analyzing these cells by multi-color flow cytometry. This protocol can be used to study the following tumor-infiltrating immune cell populations, defined by the expression of cell surface molecules: total leukocytes, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), conventional dendritic cells (DCs), CD103-expressing DCs, tumor-associated neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, γδT cells, and regulatory T cells.

0 Q&A 7631 Views Nov 20, 2018
Cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs) represent a crucial component of the adaptive immune system and play a prominent role in the anti-tumor immune responses of both mice and humans.

Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells are responsible for the lysis of cells expressing peptides associated with MHC class I molecules and derived from infection with a pathogen or from mutated antigens. In order to quantify in vivo this antigen-specific CD8+ T cell killing activity, we use the in vivo killing assay (IVKA). Here, we describe the protocol for the lysis of cells expressing a CD8+ T cell melanoma epitope of the hgp10025-33 protein (KVPRNQDWL). C57BL/6 recipient mice, receive first target cells, prepared from naive congenic (CD45.1) C57BL/6 spleen cells pulsed with the hgp10025-33 peptide and labeled with CFSE and of non-pulsed control cells labeled with Brilliant violet. One day later, the spleen cells of recipient mice are isolated and analyzed by FACS to measure the amount of CFSE cells and Brillant Violet (BV) cells. The percentage of lysis is calculated by the difference between CFSE versus BV.

Measuring the ability of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells to lyse their antigen in vivo is very important to evaluate the adaptive cytotoxic response induced against a pathogen or a tumor antigen.
0 Q&A 9307 Views Jul 20, 2017
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain cancer in adults and has a poor prognosis. It is characterized by a high degree of cellular infiltration that leads to tumor recurrence, atypical hyperplasia, necrosis, and angiogenesis. Despite aggressive treatment modalities, current therapies are ineffective for GBM. Mouse GBM models not only provide a better understanding in the mechanisms of gliomagenesis, but also facilitate the drug discovery for treating this deadly cancer. A retroviral vector system that expresses PDGFBB (Platelet-derived growth factor BB) and inactivates PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog) and P53 tumor suppressors provides a rapid and efficient induction of glioma in mice with full penetrance. In this protocol, we describe a simple and practical method for inducing GBM formation by retrovirus injection in the murine brain. This system gives a spatial and temporal control over the induction of glioma and allows the assessment of therapeutic effects with a bioluminescent reporter.
0 Q&A 9554 Views Aug 20, 2015
Tumors develop in a complex microenvironment alongside numerous cell types that impact their survival. Immune cells make up a large proportion of these accessory cells and many are known to promote tumor progression. Macrophages, in particular, are associated with poor patient prognosis and are therefore potential candidates for therapeutic targeting in cancer. However, to develop successful strategies to target macrophages, it is important to clarify whether these cells are derived from blood-borne precursors or a tissue-resident population. Parabiosis, or the surgical connection of two mice resulting in a shared blood circulation, allows the distinction between these two cellular sources. Here, we describe the use of parabiosis to define cell ontogeny in a mouse model of breast cancer.
0 Q&A 8723 Views Aug 20, 2015
The adoptive transfer of immune cells for cancer, chronic infection, and autoimmunity is an emerging field that has shown promise in recent trials. The transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) is a classical mouse model of prostate cancer (PCa) and TRAMP cell lines were derived from a TRAMP mouse tumor. TRAMP-C2 is tumorigenic when (subcutaneously) s.c. grafted into syngeneic C57BL/6 host mice (Foster et al., 1997). This protocol will describe the adoptive transfer of purified CD11b+Gr1+ double positive (DP) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and CD3+ T cells in the TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer mouse model in order to establish the intrinsic functionality of these immune cells and to determine their role in tumorigenesis in vivo (Yan et al., 2014).
1 Q&A 27106 Views Nov 20, 2014
Tumors are heterogeneous microenvironments where complex interactions take place between neoplastic cells and infiltrating inflammatory cells, such as tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and tumor-associated dendritic cells (TADC). The relevance of tumor-infiltrating mononuclear myeloid cells is underscored by clinical studies showing a correlation between their abundance and poor prognosis (Laoui et al., 2011). These cells are able to promote tumor progression via several mechanisms, including induction of angiogenesis, remodeling of the extracellular matrix, stimulation of cancer cell proliferation and metastasis and the inhibition of adaptive immunity (Laoui et al., 2011). Moreover, mononuclear myeloid cells are characterized by plasticity and versatility in response to microenvironmental signals, resulting in different activation states, as illustrated by the presence of distinct functional TAM subsets in tumors (Movahedi et al., 2010; Laoui et al., 2014). Here, we describe a valuable isolation technique for TAM and TADC permitting their molecular and functional characterization.
0 Q&A 11972 Views Aug 20, 2013
Natural Killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that constitute a major component of the innate immune system. Immunosurveillance of the host by NK cells for malignant and virally-infected cells results in direct cytotoxicity and the production of cytokines to enhance the immune response. This protocol will describe the adoptive transfer of purified NK cells into NK cell-deficient tumor bearing mice in order to establish the intrinsic functionality of NK cells.
0 Q&A 10389 Views Mar 5, 2013
Lung clearance assay tests the ability of innate immune cells (mainly NK cells) to eradicate in vivo cells injected via the tail vein of the mice. This assay helps to elucidate the role played by NK cells and their receptors (if the mice are genetically modified) against various human and mouse targets in an in vivo setting (Stern-Ginossar et al., 2008; Halfteck et al., 2009; Tsukerman et al., 2012).



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