Plant Science


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 261 Views Feb 5, 2023

Based on the availability of oxygen, plant growth environment can be normoxic (normal environment), hypoxic (reduced oxygen, <21%), or anoxic (complete depletion of oxygen). Hypoxic/anoxic environment is created when a plant is exposed to stresses such as submergence, flooding, or pathogen attack. Survival of the plants following stress conditions is in part dependent on their ability to overcome the stress induced by anoxia/hypoxia conditions. This shows the need for the development of strategies for understanding the mechanisms involved in plant tolerance to anoxia. Previous studies have employed different methods for establishing an anerobic environment. Here, we describe a simple method for creating anoxic environment using an anaerobic atmosphere generation bag. Anoxic conditions can be maintained in a cylindrical jar, a rectangular box, or a vacuum sealer bag, enabling the screening of a large number of samples. This protocol is particularly useful to screen plant mutants that are tolerant to anoxia. The method is simple, easy, cost-efficient, reproducible, and does not require any sophisticated instruments.

Graphic abstract

1 Q&A 4399 Views Jun 20, 2021

The micrografting technique in the model plant Arabidopsis has been widely used in the field of plant science. Grafting experiments have demonstrated that signal transductions are systematically regulated in many plant characteristics, including defense mechanisms and responses to surrounding environments such as soil and light conditions. Hypocotyl micrografting is a powerful tool for the analysis of signal transduction between shoots and roots; however, the requirement for a high level of skill for micrografting, during which small seedlings are microdissected and micromanipulated, has limited its use. Here, we developed a silicone-made microdevice, called a micrografting chip, to perform Arabidopsis micrografting easily and uniformly. The micrografting chip has tandemly arrayed units, each of which consists of a seed pocket for seed germination and a micro-path to hold hypocotyl. All micrografting procedures are performed on the chip. This method using a micrografting chip will avoid the need for training and promote studies of systemic signaling in plants.

Graphic abstract:

A silicone chip for easy grafting

0 Q&A 3485 Views Oct 5, 2020
Flavonols are a subclass of flavonoids of the group of plant secondary metabolites. In planta, flavonols play various functions such as antioxidant and natural regulator of auxin polar transport. Many lines of evidence have shown that flavonols also contribute to human health in anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and even prevention some types of cancer. Several methods have been utilized to measure flavonols such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and diphenylboric acid-2-aminoethyl ester (DPBA) staining. While HPLC or LC-MS can quantitatively determine the level of flavonols, DPBA staining can provide an in-situ view of flavonols accumulation in the plants. In this protocol, a detailed procedure for staining the flavonols in Arabidopsis root tips is described. Five-day-old Arabidopsis seedlings are soaked in a solution containing DPBA and latterly the flavonols (kaempferol and quercetin) can be observed under a confocal microscope.
0 Q&A 5053 Views Jul 20, 2019
Symbiotic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plants are widespread among land plants and can be beneficial for both partners. The plant is provided with mineral nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous, whereas it provides carbon resources for the fungus in return. Due to the large economic and environmental impact, efficient characterization methods are required to monitor and quantify plant-AMF colonization. Existing methods, based on destructive sampling and elaborate root tissue analysis, are of limited value for high-throughput (HTP) screening. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the HTP quantification of blumenol derivatives in leaves by a simple extraction procedure and sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis as accurate proxies of root AMF-associations in both model plants and economically relevant crops.
0 Q&A 5757 Views Nov 5, 2017
Tenuiviruses can infect the plants of the family Poaceae, and cause serious loss of crops, particularly rice and maize, in South-Eastern Asian countries. Tenuiviruses usually depend on insect vectors for their transmission and cannot be transmitted between plants through wounds or abrasions. Rice stripe virus (RSV), a typical member of tenuiviruses, is efficiently transmitted by the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus in a persistent-propagative manner to cause rice stripe disease. Here we presented a convenient method, the midrib micro-injection, to mechanically inoculate insect-derived RSV into rice leaves for conducting pathogenicity assay on rice plants.
0 Q&A 11342 Views Jul 20, 2017
Brassinosteroids (BRs) promote rice lamina inclination. Recently, we showed that OsBUL1 knockout mutant rice (osbul1) is defective in brassinosteroid signaling (Jang et al., 2017). To show that lamina joint inclination of osbul1 is less-sensitive than WT to exogenous brassinolide (BL) treatment in the lamina joint inclination bioassays, we applied the protocol presented below. The protocol focuses on: (1) how to prepare rice samples for the assay, and (2) how to treat BL exogenously. Finally, we have added a result showing lamina inclination between WT and osbul1 in BL solutions of various concentrations.
0 Q&A 9655 Views Jul 5, 2017
Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability. A symptom of iron (Fe) toxicity in plants is stunted root growth, yet little is known about the effects of excess Fe on lateral root (LR) development. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana root systems to Fe by testing homogeneous supply and localized Fe supply treatment.
0 Q&A 12855 Views Jun 20, 2017
Phototaxis is a behavior in which organisms move toward or away from the light source (positive or negative phototaxis, respectively). It is crucial for phototrophic microorganisms to inhabit under proper light conditions for phototaxis. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii rapidly changes its swimming direction upon light illumination, and thus is a nice model organism for phototaxis research. Here we show two methods to assay Chlamydomonas phototaxis; one is a quick, easy and qualitative analysis, so-called the dish assay; and the other is a quantitative single-cell analysis.
0 Q&A 8635 Views May 5, 2017
Phtheirospermum japonicum is a facultative root parasitic plant in the Orobanchaceae family used as a model parasitic plant. Facultative root parasites form an invasive organ called haustorium on the lateral parts of their roots. To functionally characterize parasitic abilities, quantification of haustorium numbers is required. However, this task is quite laborious and time consuming. Here we describe an efficient protocol to induce haustorium in vitro by haustorium-inducing chemicals and host root exudate treatments in P. japonicum.
0 Q&A 10609 Views Dec 5, 2016
The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum (previously also called Gibberella zeae) causes Gibberella stalk rot in maize (Zea mays) and results in lodging and serious yield reduction. To develop methods to assess the fungal growth and symptom development in maize stalks, we present here a protocol of maize stalk inoculation with conidiospores of fluorescent protein-tagged F. graminearumand microscopic observation of the stalk infection process. The inoculation protocol provides repeatable results in stalk rot symptom development, and allows tracking of fungal hyphal growth inside maize stalks at cellular scale.

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