Protocols in Current Issue
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0 Q&A 3305 Views Jul 5, 2021

Soluble sugars play key roles in plant growth, development, and adaption to the environment. Characterizing sugar content profiling of plant tissues promotes our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these plant processes. Several technologies have been developed to quantitate soluble sugar content in plant tissues; however, it is difficult with only minute quantities of plant tissues available. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based soluble sugar profiling of rice tissues that offers a good balance of sensitivity and reliability, and is considerably more sensitive and accurate than other reported methods. We summarize all the steps from sample collection and soluble sugar extraction to derivatization procedures of the soluble extracted sugars, instrumentation settings, and data analysis.

0 Q&A 9317 Views Jul 5, 2017
Organisms store carbohydrates in several forms. In yeast, carbohydrates are stored in glycogen (a multi-branched polysaccharide) and in trehalose (a disaccharide). As in other organisms, the amount of stored carbohydrate varies dramatically with physiological state, and accordingly, an assay of stored carbohydrate can help reveal physiological state. Here, we describe relatively easy and streamlined assays for glycogen and trehalose in yeast that can be applied either to a few samples, or in a moderately high-throughput fashion (dozens to hundreds of samples).
0 Q&A 8645 Views Apr 5, 2017
Heparan sulfate (HS) is purified from complex matrices and often not fully characterised to validate its assignment. The characterisation of heparins and heparan sulfates through enzymatic depolymerisation and subsequent strong anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) analysis and quantitation of the resulting disaccharides is a critical tool for assessing the structural composition of this class of compound. This protocol details a methodology to reproducibly determine the disaccharide composition of heparan sulfate by enzymatic depolymerisation and SAX-HPLC analysis. A complementary method for identification and characterisation of heparan sulfate can be found at Carnachan and Hinkley (2017).
0 Q&A 7782 Views Apr 5, 2017
Heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) may be purified from complex biological matrices and are often isolated in sub-milligram quantities but not unequivocally identified by spectroscopic means. This protocol details a methodology to rapidly assess the gross compositional features and approximate purity of HS by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. A complimentary method for identification and characterisation of heparan sulfate can be found at Carnachan and Hinkley (2017).
2 Q&A 11808 Views Oct 20, 2013
Trehalose is a nonreducing disaccharide. It is a common sugar in bacteria, fungi and yeast, where it functions as a carbon source and stress protectant. In contrast, plants, although encoding large trehalose biosynthesis gene families, contain only small amounts of trehalose. The intermediate compound of trehalose, trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), is a signaling molecule in plants, regulating metabolism, growth, and development. Most plants contain only a single trehalase, the enzyme that specifically hydrolyzes trehalose into two glucose molecules. High trehalase activity has been suggested to be part of the defense mechanism in plants hosting mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobia, and the plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassica. Recently, it was shown in Arabidopsis thaliana that high trehalase activity is associated with an increase in drought stress tolerance and that trehalase fulfills an important role in stomatal regulation. Here we describe a protocol for measuring trehalase activity in Arabidopsis tissues, optimized for 96-well plates. Dialyzed protein extracts will be incubated with trehalose, followed by the quantitation of the released glucose using glucose oxidase-peroxidase.

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