Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 4263 Views Jan 5, 2020
Trehalose (and glycogen) is a major storage carbohydrate in many cells, including S. cerevisiae. Typically, trehalose (a disaccharide of glucose) is synthesized and stored through gluconeogenesis. However, trehalose can also be made directly from glucose, if glucose-6-phosphate is channeled away from glycolysis or pentose phosphate pathway. Therefore, analyzing trehalose synthesis, utilization or its accumulation, can be used as a sentinel read-out for either gluconeogenesis or rewired glucose utilization. However, the steady-state measurements alone of trehalose cannot unambiguously distinguish the nature of carbon flux in a system. Here, we first summarize simple steady-state enzymatic assays to measure trehalose (and glycogen), that will have very wide uses. Subsequently, we describe methods of highly sensitive, quantitative LC-MS/MS based to measure trehalose. We include methods of 13C stable-isotope based pulse-labeling experiments (using different carbon sources) with which to measure rates of trehalose synthesis, from different carbon metabolism pathways. This approach can be used to unambiguously determine the extent of carbon flux into trehalose coming from gluconeogenesis, or directly from glucose/glycolysis. These protocols collectively enable comprehensive steady-state as well as carbon flux based measurements of trehalose. This permits a dissection of carbon flux to distinguish between cells in a gluconeogenic state (conventionally leading to trehalose synthesis), or cells with rewired glucose metabolism (also leading to trehalose synthesis). While the methods presented are optimized for yeast, these methods can be easily adapted to several types of cells, including many microbes.
0 Q&A 6781 Views May 20, 2018
Invertase can catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose, and is widely distributed in cells of cyanobacteria and plants. Being responsible for the first step for sucrose metabolism, invertase plays important physiological roles and its enzymatic activity is frequently needed to be determined. All the methods for determination of the invertase activity are dependent on detection of the glucose product generated by the invertase. Here we describe an ion chromatography based protocol of our laboratory for determination of cyanobacterial intracellular invertase activity.
0 Q&A 5176 Views Apr 20, 2018
Most of the cyanobacteria accumulate osmolytes including sucrose, glucosylglycerol, in their cells in response to salt stress. Here we describe a protocol of our laboratory for extraction and quantification of cyanobacterial intracellular sucrose and glucosylglycerol. We have confirmed this protocol was applicable to at least four kinds of cyanobacteria, filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and halotolerant unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002.
0 Q&A 9315 Views Jul 5, 2017
Organisms store carbohydrates in several forms. In yeast, carbohydrates are stored in glycogen (a multi-branched polysaccharide) and in trehalose (a disaccharide). As in other organisms, the amount of stored carbohydrate varies dramatically with physiological state, and accordingly, an assay of stored carbohydrate can help reveal physiological state. Here, we describe relatively easy and streamlined assays for glycogen and trehalose in yeast that can be applied either to a few samples, or in a moderately high-throughput fashion (dozens to hundreds of samples).
0 Q&A 8101 Views May 5, 2017
Succinate and lactate are commodity chemicals used for producing bioplastics. Recently, it was found that such organic acids are excreted from cells of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under dark, anaerobic conditions. To conduct the dark, anaerobic incubation, cells were concentrated within a vial that was then sealed with a butyl rubber cap, following which N2 gas was introduced into the vial. The organic acids produced were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography via post-labeling with bromothymol blue as a pH indicator. After separation by ion-exclusion chromatography, the organic acids were identified by comparing their retention time with that of standard solutions. These procedures allow researchers to quantify the organic acids produced by microorganisms, contributing to knowledge about the biology and biotechnology of cyanobacteria.
0 Q&A 7768 Views Sep 5, 2014
Galactofuranose (Galf) is a component of several polysaccharides and glycoconjugates in certain species of filamentous fungi. Galf residues are frequently found in Aspergillus glycoproteins, including N-glycans and O-mannose glycans that modify many cell wall proteins and extracellular enzymes. It is known that furanoses, contained in oligosaccharides, are detected as pyranoses after hydrolysis, and that D-galactopyranose is not contained in the galactomannoproteins of Aspergillus spp. To determine the levels of D-galactofuranose in galactomannoproteins extracted from Aspergillus nidulans (A. nidulans), we measured the amount of D-galactopyranose production after galactomannoproteins hydrolysis. The method described in this manuscript allows determination of the D-galactofuranose content of galactomannoproteins in Aspergillus spp.
0 Q&A 12568 Views Jun 5, 2014
Glycogen, a soluble multi-branched glucose homopolysaccharide, is composed of chains of α-1,4-linked glucose residues interconnected by α-1,6-linked branches. The classical biosynthetic pathway involves phosphoglucomutase (Pgm), glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (GlgC or GlgCD), glycogen synthase (GlgA) and branching enzyme (GlgB). Phosphoglucomutase converts glucose-6-phosphate into glucose-1-phosphate, which serves as a substrate for ADP-glucose synthesis catalyzed by GlgC or GlgCD. Then, GlgA catalyzes the transfer of glucosyl units from ADP-glucose to the elongating chain of linear α-1,4-glucan. GlgB subsequently cleaves off portions of the glucan and links it to internal glucose molecules in existing chains via α-1,6 glycosidic bonds to form the glycogen structure. Glycogen breakdown is mediated by glycogen phosphorylase (GlgP) and debranching enzyme (GlgX), which catalyze the sequential phosphorolysis of α-1,4-glucosyl linkages in the glucan chain from the non-reducing ends and debranching of the limit dextrins generated by GlgP, respectively. An increasing number of studies have revealed the involvement of glycogen metabolism in a multitude of physiological functions in some prokaryotes beyond the function of synthesizing energy storage compounds. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM was the first probiotic lactic acid bacterium demonstrated to possess a functional glycogen biosynthesis pathway that is involved in its growth, bile tolerance and complex carbohydrate metabolism (Goh and Klaenhammer, 2013). The following qualitative (for detection of intracellular glycogen) and quantitative (for measurement of intracellular glycogen content) intracellular glycogen assay protocols for Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) were modified from previous works (Govons et al., 1969; Law et al., 1995; Parrou and Francois, 1997) and should be applicable to other lactic acid bacteria as well as most microorganisms.

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