Mammalia

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    High Throughput Blood-brain Barrier Organoid Generation and Assessment of Receptor-Mediated Antibody Transcytosis
    Authors:  Elena Kassianidou, Claire Simonneau, Alina Gavrilov and Roberto Villaseñor, date: 04/20/2022, view: 555, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Targeting receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT) is a successful strategy for drug delivery of biologic agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The recent development of human BBB organoid models is a major advancement to help characterize the mechanisms of RMT and thus accelerate the design of brain delivery technologies. BBB organoids exhibit

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    Stimulus-induced Robust Narrow-band Gamma Oscillations in Human EEG Using Cartesian Gratings
    Authors:  Dinavahi V. P. S. Murty and Supratim Ray, date: 04/05/2022, view: 339, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Stimulus-induced narrow-band gamma oscillations (20–70 Hz) are induced in the visual areas of the brain when particular visual stimuli, such as bars, gratings, or full-screen hue, are shown to the subject. Such oscillations are modulated by higher cognitive functions, like attention, and working memory, and have been shown to be abnormal in

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    Single-cell Damagenome Profiling by Linear Copying and Splitting based Whole Genome Amplification (LCS-WGA)
    Authors:  Yichi Niu, Qiangyuan Zhu and Chenghang Zong, date: 03/20/2022, view: 521, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Spontaneous DNA damage frequently occurs on the human genome, and it could alter gene expression by inducing mutagenesis or epigenetic changes. Therefore, it is highly desired to profile DNA damage distribution on the human genome and identify the genes that are prone to DNA damage. Here, we present a novel single-cell whole-genome amplification

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    Anticipatory and Consummatory Responses to Touch and Food Rewards: A Protocol for Human Research
    Authors:  Emilio Chiappini, Giorgia Silani and Sebastian Korb, date: 02/20/2022, view: 630, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Understanding the neural basis of reward processing is a major concern, as it holds the key to alleviating symptoms of addiction and poor mental health. However, this goal seems difficult to attain as long as research on reward processing cannot easily be compared across species and reward types, due to methodological differences and the presence

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    Measurement of LRRK2 Kinase Activity by Proximity Ligation Assay
    Authors:  Matthew T. Keeney, Eric K. Hoffman, J. Timothy Greenamyre and Roberto Di Maio, date: 09/05/2021, view: 1544, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Missense mutations in leucine rich-repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause forms of familial Parkinson’s disease and have been linked to ‘idiopathic’ Parkinson’s disease. Assessment of LRRK2 kinase activity has been very challenging due to its size, complex structure, and relatively low abundance. A standard in the field to assess

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    Differential Analysis of N-glycopeptide Abundance and N-glycosylation Site Occupancy for Studying Protein N-glycosylation Dysregulation in Human Disease
    Authors:  Qi Zhang, Cheng Ma, Lian Li and Lih-Shen Chin, date: 06/20/2021, view: 1895, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Protein N-glycosylation plays a vital role in diverse cellular processes, and dysregulated N-glycosylation is implicated in a variety of human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. With recent advances in high-resolution mass spectrometry-based glycoproteomics technologies enabling large-scale N-glycoproteome profiling of

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    Generation and Maintenance of Homogeneous Human Midbrain Organoids
    Authors:  Henrik Renner, Martha Grabos, Hans R. Schöler and Jan M. Bruder, date: 06/05/2021, view: 3068, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Three-dimensional cell cultures (“organoids”) promise to better recapitulate native tissue physiology than traditional 2D cultures and are becoming increasingly interesting for disease modeling and compound screening efforts. While a number of protocols for the generation of neural organoids have been published, most protocols require

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    Ex vivo Tissue Culture Protocols for Studying the Developing Neocortex
    Authors:  Takashi Namba, Christiane Haffner and Wieland B. Huttner, date: 05/20/2021, view: 2722, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The size of the neocortex and its morphology are highly divergent across mammalian species. Several approaches have been utilized for the analysis of neocortical development and comparison among different species. In the present protocol (Note: This protocol requires basic knowledge of brain anatomy), we describe three ex vivo neocortical

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    Generation of Human iPSC-derived Neural Progenitor Cells (NPCs) as Drug Discovery Model for Neurological and Mitochondrial Disorders
    Authors:  Annika Zink, Pawel Lisowski and Alessandro Prigione, date: 03/05/2021, view: 3817, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract]

    The high attrition rate in drug development processes calls for additional human-based model systems. However, in the context of brain disorders, sampling live neuronal cells for compound testing is not applicable. The use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the field of neuronal disease modeling and drug discovery.

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    Low- and High-resolution Dynamic Analyses for Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Data
    Author:  Reuben Rideaux, date: 01/20/2021, view: 1996, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to measure in vivo concentrations of neurometabolites. This information can be used to identify neurotransmitter involvement in healthy (e.g., perceptual and cognitive processes) and unhealthy brain function (e.g., neurological and psychiatric illnesses). The standard approach for analyzing MRS

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