Cell Biology


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0 Q&A 5993 Views Sep 5, 2020
An important but often overlooked aspect of gene regulation occurs at the level of protein translation. Many genes are regulated not only by transcription but by their propensity to be recruited to actively translating ribosomes (polysomes). Polysome profiling allows for the separation of unbound 40S and 60S subunits, 80S monosomes, and actively translating mRNA bound by two or more ribosomes. Thus, this technique allows for actively translated mRNA to be isolated. Transcript abundance can then be compared between actively translated mRNA and all mRNA present in a sample to identify instances of post-transcriptional regulation. Additionally, polysome profiling can be used as a readout of global translation rates by quantifying the proportion of actively translating ribosomes within a sample. Previously established protocols for polysome profiling rely on the absorbance of RNA to visualize the presence of polysomes within the fractions. However, with the advent of flow cells capable of detecting fluorescence, the association of fluorescently tagged proteins with polysomes can be detected and quantified in addition to the absorbance of RNA. This protocol provides detailed instructions on how to perform fluorescent polysome profiling in C. elegans to collect actively translated mRNA, to quantify changes in global translation, and to detect ribosomal binding partners.
5 Q&A 29032 Views Feb 5, 2017
Eukaryotic cells adapt to changes in external or internal signals by precisely modulating the expression of specific gene products. The expression of protein-coding genes is controlled at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Among the latter steps, the regulation of translation is particularly important in cellular processes that require rapid changes in protein expression patterns. The translational efficiency of mRNAs is altered by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and noncoding (nc)RNAs such as microRNAs (Panda et al., 2014a and 2014b; Abdelmohsen et al., 2014). The impact of factors that regulate selective mRNA translation is a critical question in RNA biology. Polyribosome (polysome) fractionation analysis is a powerful method to assess the association of ribosomes with a given mRNA. It provides valuable information about the translational status of that mRNA, depending on the number of ribosomes with which they are associated, and identifies mRNAs that are not translated (Panda et al., 2016). mRNAs associated with many ribosomes form large polysomes that are predicted to be actively translated, while mRNAs associated with few or no ribosomes are expected to be translated poorly if at all. In sum, polysome fractionation analysis allows the direct determination of translation efficiencies at the level of the whole transcriptome as well as individual mRNAs.
0 Q&A 13604 Views Nov 5, 2016
Ribosome footprinting, or Ribo-seq, has revolutionized the studies of translation. It was originally developed for yeast and mammalian cells in culture (Ingolia et al., 2009). Herein, we describe a plant-optimized hands-on ribosome footprinting protocol derived from previously published procedures of polysome isolation (Ingolia et al., 2009; Mustroph et al., 2009) and ribosome footprinting (Ingolia et al., 2009; Ingolia et al., 2013). With this protocol, we have been able to successfully isolate and analyze high-quality ribosomal footprints from different stages of in vitro grown Arabidopsis thaliana plants (dark-grown seedlings [Merchante et al., 2015] and 13-day-old plantlets in plates and plants grown in liquid culture [unpublished results]).

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