Biochemistry


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 4110 Views May 20, 2020
Differential exposure of tumor cells to microenvironmental cues greatly impacts cell phenotypes, raising a need for position based sorting of tumor cells amenable to multiple OMICs and functional analyses. One such key determinant of tumor heterogeneity in solid tumors is its vasculature. Proximity to blood vessels (BVs) profoundly affects tumor cell phenotypes due to differential availability of oxygen, gradient exposure to blood-borne substances and inputs by angiocrine factors. To unravel the whole spectrum of genes, pathways and phenotypes impacted by BVs and to determine spatial domains of vascular influences, we developed a methodology for sorting tumor cells according to their relative distance from BVs. The procedure exemplified here using glioblastoma (GBM) model is based on differential uptake of intra-venously injected, freely-diffusing fluorescent dye that allows separation of stroma-free tumor cells residing in different, successive microenvironments amenable for subsequent OMICs and functional analyses. This reliable, easy to use, cost effective strategy can be extended to all solid tumors to study the impact of vasculature or the lack of it.
0 Q&A 3347 Views Mar 5, 2020
The plant cell wall is a complex network of polysaccharides and proteins that provides strength and structural integrity to plant cells, as well as playing a vital role in growth, development, and defense response. Cell wall polysaccharides can be broadly grouped into three categories: cellulose, pectins, and hemicelluloses. Dynamic interactions between polysaccharides and cell wall-associated proteins contribute to regions of flexibility and rigidity within the cell wall, allowing for remodeling when necessary during growth, environmental adaptation, or stress response activation. These polysaccharide interactions are vital to plant growth, however they also contribute to the level of difficulty encountered when attempting to analyze cell wall structure and composition. In the past, lengthy protocols to quantify cell wall monosaccharides contributing to cellulose as well as neutral and acidic cell wall polysaccharides have been used. Recently, a streamlined approach for monosaccharide quantification was described. This protocol combines a simplified hydrolysis method followed by several runs of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Here, we present an updated version of this protocol in which we can analyze all nine cell wall monosaccharides in a single high-performance liquid chromatography HPAEC-PAD gradient profile. The inclusion of an enzymatic starch degradation, as well as alternate internal standards for added quantification accuracy, and a ready-to-use Python script facilitating data analysis adds a broadened scope of utility to this protocol. This protocol was used to analyze Arabidopsis light-grown seedlings and dark-grown hypocotyls, but is suitable for any plant tissues.
0 Q&A 4062 Views Jan 5, 2020
Trehalose (and glycogen) is a major storage carbohydrate in many cells, including S. cerevisiae. Typically, trehalose (a disaccharide of glucose) is synthesized and stored through gluconeogenesis. However, trehalose can also be made directly from glucose, if glucose-6-phosphate is channeled away from glycolysis or pentose phosphate pathway. Therefore, analyzing trehalose synthesis, utilization or its accumulation, can be used as a sentinel read-out for either gluconeogenesis or rewired glucose utilization. However, the steady-state measurements alone of trehalose cannot unambiguously distinguish the nature of carbon flux in a system. Here, we first summarize simple steady-state enzymatic assays to measure trehalose (and glycogen), that will have very wide uses. Subsequently, we describe methods of highly sensitive, quantitative LC-MS/MS based to measure trehalose. We include methods of 13C stable-isotope based pulse-labeling experiments (using different carbon sources) with which to measure rates of trehalose synthesis, from different carbon metabolism pathways. This approach can be used to unambiguously determine the extent of carbon flux into trehalose coming from gluconeogenesis, or directly from glucose/glycolysis. These protocols collectively enable comprehensive steady-state as well as carbon flux based measurements of trehalose. This permits a dissection of carbon flux to distinguish between cells in a gluconeogenic state (conventionally leading to trehalose synthesis), or cells with rewired glucose metabolism (also leading to trehalose synthesis). While the methods presented are optimized for yeast, these methods can be easily adapted to several types of cells, including many microbes.
0 Q&A 9342 Views Apr 20, 2018
This is a flow cytometry-based protocol to measure glucose uptake of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and breast cancer cells in vitro. The method is a slightly modified and updated version as previously described (Dong et al., 2017). Briefly, the target cells are incubated with the fluorescently tagged 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) for 2 h or 30 min, and the efficiency of glucose uptake is examined using a flow cytometer. This method can be adapted to measure a variety of adipocytes, immune cells, MEFs and cancer cells.
0 Q&A 9821 Views Jul 20, 2016
To study alterations in the metabolism and/or in the transport of glucose during Fusarium oxysporum vegetative growth, we determined intracellular glucose levels in different fungal strains, as well as the amount of glucose remaining in the supernatants after growth in synthetic medium (SM) supplemented with either 0.05 or 2.5% glucose. We used the Glucose (GO) Assay Kit (Sigma-Aldrich) following the instructions of the manufacturer with some modifications. The protocol described here can be applied to other filamentous fungi.
0 Q&A 11104 Views Nov 20, 2015
Mice are widely used for human tumor xenograft studies of cancer development and drug efficacy and toxicity. Stable isotope tracing coupled with metabolomic analysis is an emerging approach for assaying metabolic network activity. In mouse models there are several routes of tracer introduction, which have particular advantages and disadvantages that depend on the model and the questions addressed. This protocol describes the bolus i.v. route via repeated tail vein injections of solutions of stable isotope enriched tracers including 13C6-glucose and 13C5,15N2-glutamine. Repeated injections give higher enrichments and over longer labeling periods than a single bolus. Multiple injections of glutamine are necessary to achieve adequate enrichment in engrafted tumors.
2 Q&A 31574 Views Jul 20, 2013
The protocol has four sub-protocols, which are about the measurement of malondialdehyde, chlorophyll proline, soluble sugar, and glutathione content, respectively, in Arabidopsis seedling by using spectrophotometer. These methods are simple, effective and reproducible, which will help the researchers who are not familiar with these approaches, quickly get reliable results.
4 Q&A 25149 Views Nov 5, 2012
Hepatic glucose production is a primary determinant of fasting hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Glucagon-cAMP-PKA pathway increases, but insulin-PI3 kinase-Akt pathway suppresses glucose production. This assay aims to evaluate the ability of isolated mouse hepatocytes to release newly synthesized glucose mainly from lactate and pyruvate as the substrates (i.e. gluconeogenesis) under basal, cAMP-, or cAMP plus insulin-treated condition.
0 Q&A 10127 Views Aug 5, 2012
5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a newly discovered DNA modification in mammalian genomes. This protocol is to be a highly efficient and selective chemical approach to label and capture 5-hmC, taking advantage of a bacteriophage enzyme that adds a glucose moiety to 5-hmC specifically, which could in turn be used for high-throughput mapping via next-generation sequencing.



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