Biological Sciences


Protocols in Current Issue
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0 Q&A 354 Views Nov 20, 2023

Dolichyl phosphates (DolP) are ubiquitous lipids that are present in almost all eukaryotic membranes. They play a key role in several protein glycosylation pathways and the formation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors. These lipids constitute only ~0.1% of total phospholipids, and their analysis by reverse phase (RP) liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS) is challenging due to their high lipophilicity (log P > 20), poor ionization efficiency, and relatively low abundance. To overcome these challenges, we have introduced a new approach for DolP analysis by combining trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSD)-based phosphate methylation and HRMS analysis. The analytical method was validated for its reproducibility, sensitivity, and accuracy. The established workflow was successfully applied for the simultaneous characterization and quantification of DolP species with different isoprene units in lipid extracts of HeLa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

0 Q&A 351 Views Aug 5, 2023

The Three-dimensional OrbiTrap Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (3D OrbiSIMS) is a secondary ion mass spectrometry instrument, a combination of a Time of Flight (ToF) instrument with an Orbitrap analyzer. The 3D OrbiSIMS technique is a powerful tool for metabolic profiling in biological samples. This can be achieved at subcellular spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and high mass-resolving power coupled with MS/MS analysis. Characterizing the metabolic signature of macrophage subsets within tissue sections offers great potential to understand the response of the human immune system to implanted biomaterials. Here, we describe a protocol for direct analysis of individual cells after in vitro differentiation of naïve monocytes into M1 and M2 phenotypes using cytokines. As a first step in vivo, we investigate explanted silicon catheter sections as a medical device in a rodent model of foreign body response. Protocols are presented to allow the host response to different immune instructive materials to be compared. The first demonstration of this capability illustrates the great potential of direct cell and tissue section analysis for in situ metabolite profiling to probe functional phenotypes using molecular signatures. Details of the in vitro cell approach, materials, sample preparation, and explant handling are presented, in addition to the data acquisition approaches and the data analysis pipelines required to achieve useful interpretation of these complex spectra. This method is useful for in situ characterization of both in vitro single cells and ex vivo tissue sections. This will aid the understanding of the immune response to medical implants by informing the design of immune-instructive biomaterials with positive interactions. It can also be used to investigate a broad range of other clinically relevant therapeutics and immune dysregulations.

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