Molecular Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
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0 Q&A 1958 Views Nov 5, 2020

During swarming, high density flagella-driven bacteria migrate collectively in a swirling pattern on wet agar surfaces, immersed in a thin viscous fluid layer called “swarm fluid”. Though the fluid environment has essential role in the emergence of swarming behavior, the microscopic mechanisms of it in mediating the cooperation of bacteria populations are not fully understood. Here, instead of micro-sized tracers used in previous research, we use gold nanorods as single particle tracers to probe the dynamics of the swarm fluid. This protocol includes five major parts: (1) the culture of swarming bacterial colony; (2) the preparations of gold nanorod tracers and the micro-spraying technique which are used to put the nanotracers into the upper fluid of bacterial swarms; (3) imaging and tracking; (4) other necessary control experiments; (5) data analysis and fitting of physical models. With this method, the nano-sized tracers could move long distances above motile cells without direct collisions with the bacteria bodies. In this way, the microscopic dynamics of the swarm fluid could be tracked with high spatiotemporal resolution. Moreover, the comprehensive analysis of multi-particle trajectories provides systematic visualization of the fluid dynamics. The method is promising to probe the fluid dynamics of other natural or artificial active matter systems.

0 Q&A 2841 Views Aug 5, 2020
Paper nanobiosensors have been established as an excellent platform for analysis of veterinary and human pathogens causing various diseases. Especially, lateral flow assays or biosensors ideal for sensitive, rapid, robust and accurate analysis in laboratory setups and on-site analysis. Viral RNA detection is of great importance for public health as well as animal health protection. In that aspect, the present protocol focuses on the development of functionalized gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensor for fish nervous necrosis virus (Nodavirus) nucleic acids detection. Total viral RNA, isolated from fish samples was subjected to reverse transcription PCR amplification and the amplification products were mixed with specific oligonucleotide probe. A red test line was formed when nodavirus product was present. The proposed assay has great implications on basic research since it eliminates the need for time-consuming, cumbersome electrophoresis protocols and could be adjusted for use on the site of fish culture by fish farmers. Disease monitoring by such bioanalytical platforms without time consuming and costly procedures would have great impact on the aquaculture and environmental safety.

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