Immunology


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0 Q&A 4058 Views May 20, 2020
Physical avoidance of pathogens is a crucial defense strategy used by the host to reduce pathogen infection. Hosts display the use of multiple strategies to sense and avoid pathogens, ranging from olfaction to sensing of damage caused by pathogen infection. Understanding various mechanisms of pathogen avoidance has the potential to uncover conserved host defense responses that are important against pathogen infections. Here, we describe protocols for studying pathogen lawn avoidance behavior as well as a change of bacterial preferences in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Besides, we describe the protocol for measuring preferences for pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria after training of the animals on pathogenic bacteria. These assays can be implemented in discovering various mechanisms of host learning that result in the avoidance of pathogens.
0 Q&A 10547 Views Nov 5, 2019
Reagents such as Amplex® Red have been developed for detecting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and are used to measure the release of H2O2 from biological samples such as mammalian leukocytes undergoing the oxidative burst. Caenorhabditis elegans is commonly used as a model host in the study of interactions with microbial pathogens and releases reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a component of its defense response. We adapted the Amplex® Red Hydrogen Peroxide/Peroxidase Assay Kit to measure H2O2 output from live Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to microbial pathogens. The assay differs from other forms of ROS detection in the worm, like dihydrofluorescein dyes and genetically encoded probes such as HyPer, in that it generally detects released, extracellular ROS rather than intracellular ROS, though the distinction between the two is blurred by the fact that certain species of ROS, including H2O2, can cross membranes. The protocol involves feeding C. elegans on a lawn of the pathogen of interest for a period of time. The animals are then rinsed off the plates in buffer and washed to remove any microbes on their cuticle. Finally, the animals in buffer are distributed into 96-well plates and Amplex® Red and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) are added. Any H2O2 released into the buffer by the worms will react with the Amplex® Red reagent in a 1:1 ratio in the presence of HRP to produce the red fluorescent excitation product resorufin that can be measured fluorometrically or spectrophotometrically, and the amount of H2O2 released can be calculated by comparison to a standard curve. The assay is most appropriate for studies focused on released ROS, and its advantages include ease of use, the ability to use small numbers of animals in a plate reader assay in which measurements can be taken either fluorometrically or spectrophotometrically.



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