Molecular Biology


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0 Q&A 509 Views Mar 5, 2024

Diatoms serve as a source for a variety of compounds with particularbiotechnological interest. Therefore, redirecting the flow to a specific pathwayrequires the elucidation of the gene’s specific function. The mostcommonly used method in diatoms is biolistic transformation, which is a veryexpensive and time-consuming method. The use of episomes that are maintained asclosed circles at a copy number equivalent to native chromosomes has become auseful genetic system for protein expression that avoids multiple insertions,position-specific effects on expression, and potential knockout of non-targetedgenes. These episomes can be introduced from bacteria into diatoms viaconjugation. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for gene expression thatincludes 1) the gateway cloning strategy and 2) the conjugation protocol for themobilization of plasmids from bacteria to diatoms.

0 Q&A 4059 Views Apr 5, 2020
Roseburia and Eubacterium species of the human gut microbiota play an important role in the maintaince of human health, partly by producing butyrate, the main energy source of our colonic epithelial cells. However, our knowledge of the biochemistry and physiology of these bacteria has been limited by a lack of genetic manipulation techniques. Conjugative transposons previously introduced into Roseburia species could not be easily modified, greatly limiting their applicability as genetic modification platforms. Modular plasmid shuttle vectors have previously been developed for Clostridium species, which share a taxonomic order with Roseburia and Eubacterium, raising the possibility that these vectors could be used in these organisms. Here, we describe an optimized conjugation protocol enabling the transfer of autonomously replicating plasmids from an E. coli donor strain into Roseburia inulinivorans and Eubacterium rectale. The modular nature of the plasmids and their ability to be maintained in the recipient bacterium by autonomous replication makes them ideal for investigating heterologous gene expression, and as a platform for other genetic tools including antisense RNA silencing or mobile group II interon gene disruption strategies.
0 Q&A 6842 Views Apr 5, 2019
Recently, we published a large and versatile set of plasmids, the chromatic bacteria toolbox, to deliver eight different fluorescent protein genes and four combinations of antibiotic resistance genes to Gram-negative bacteria. Fluorescent tags are important tools for single-cell microbiology, synthetic community studies, biofilm, and host-microbe interaction studies. Using conjugation helper strain E. coli S17-1 as a donor, we show how plasmid conjugation can be used to deliver broad host range plasmids, Tn5 transposons delivery plasmids, and Tn7 transposon delivery plasmids into species belonging to the Proteobacteria. To that end, donor and recipient bacteria are grown under standard growth conditions before they are mixed and incubated under non-selective conditions. Then, transconjugants or exconjugant recipients are selected on selective media. Mutant colonies are screened using a combination of tools to ensure that the desired plasmids or transposons are present and that the colonies are not containing any surviving donors. Through conjugation, a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria can be modified without prior, often time-consuming, establishment of competent cell and electroporation procedures that need to be adjusted for every individual strain. The here presented protocol is not exclusive for the delivery of Chromatic bacteria plasmids and transposons, but can also be used to deliver other mobilizable plasmids to bacterial recipients.

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