Molecular Biology


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0 Q&A 621 Views May 20, 2023

Mitochondria play decisive roles in bioenergetics and intracellular communication. These organelles contain a circular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome that is duplicated within one to two hours by a mitochondrial replisome, independently from the nuclear replisome. mtDNA stability is regulated in part at the level of mtDNA replication. Consequently, mutations in mitochondrial replisome components result in mtDNA instability and are associated with diverse disease phenotypes, including premature aging, aberrant cellular energetics, and developmental defects. The mechanisms ensuring mtDNA replication stability are not completely understood. Thus, there remains a need to develop tools to specifically and quantifiably examine mtDNA replication. To date, methods for labeling mtDNA have relied on prolonged exposures of 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) or 5′-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU). However, labeling with these nucleoside analogs for a sufficiently short time in order to monitor nascent mtDNA replication, such as under two hours, does not produce signals suited for efficient or accurate quantitative analysis. The assay system described here, termed Mitochondrial Replication Assay (MIRA), utilizes proximity ligation assay (PLA) combined with EdU-coupled Click-IT chemistry to address this limitation, thereby enabling sensitive and quantitative analysis of nascent in situ mtDNA replication with single-cell resolution. This method can be further paired with conventional immunofluorescence (IF) for multi-parameter cell analysis. By enabling monitoring nascent mtDNA prior to the complete replication of the entire mtDNA genome, this new assay system allowed the discovery of a new mitochondrial stability pathway, mtDNA fork protection. Moreover, a modification in primary antibodies application allows the adaptation of our previously described in situ protein Interactions with nascent DNA Replication Forks (SIRF) for the detection of proteins of interest to nascent mtDNA replication forks on a single molecule level (mitoSIRF).

Graphical overview

Schematic overview of Mitochondrial Replication Assay (MIRA). 5′-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU; green) incorporated in DNA is tagged with biotin (blue) using Click-IT chemistry. Subsequent proximity ligation assay (PLA, pink circles) using antibodies against biotin allows the fluorescent tagging of the nascent EdU and amplification of the signal sufficient for visualization by standard immunofluorescence. PLA signals outside the nucleus denote mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) signals. Ab, antibody. In in situ protein interactions with nascent DNA replication forks (mitoSIRF), one of the primary antibodies is directed against a protein of interest, while the other detects nascent biotinylated EdU, thus enabling in situ protein interactions with nascent mtDNA.

0 Q&A 5148 Views Oct 20, 2018
Due to the exceptionally high mutation rates of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, infectious RNA viruses generate extensive sequence diversity, leading to some of the lowest barriers to the development of antiviral drug resistance in the microbial world. We have previously discovered that higher barriers to the development of drug resistance can be achieved through dominant suppression of drug-resistant viruses by their drug-susceptible parents. We have explored the existence of dominant drug targets in poliovirus, dengue virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The low replication capacity of HCV required the development of novel strategies for identifying cells co-infected with drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains. To monitor co-infected cell populations, we generated codon-altered versions of the JFH1 strain of HCV. Then, we could differentiate the codon-altered and wild-type strains using a novel type of RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled with flow cytometry or confocal microscopy. Both of these techniques can be used in conjunction with standard antibody-protein detection methods. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for both RNA FISH flow cytometry and confocal microscopy.

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