Cell Biology


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0 Q&A 3157 Views Jul 20, 2020
The acrosome reaction is a highly regulated exocytotic event that primes spermatozoa for successful fertilization. Upon induction, acrosomal exocytosis proceeds via a wave of vesiculation that radiates across the sperm head, destabilizing the acrosomal vesicle and resulting in the release of the acrosomal contents. Having shed their acrosome, spermatozoa are then capable of penetrating the outer vestments of the oocyte and initiating fertilization. Accordingly, the failure of spermatozoa to complete an acrosome reaction represents a relatively common etiology in male infertility patients, and the ability to induce acrosomal exocytosis has found clinical utility in the evaluation of sperm fertilizing capacity. Here, we firstly describe protocols for driving the capacitation of human spermatozoa in vitro using chemically defined media in order to prime the cells for completion of acrosomal exocytosis. We then describe methodology routinely used for the induction of acrosomal exocytosis incorporating either a physiological agonist (i.e., the steroidal hormone, progesterone) or pharmacological reagent (i.e., the divalent cation ionophore, A23187). Finally, we describe the application of histochemical and immunofluorescence techniques that can be applied to study the completion of the acrosome reaction. Such protocols have important diagnostic utility for sperm function testing in both clinical and andrological research laboratories.
0 Q&A 6531 Views May 5, 2018
In glomerular disease, podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are shed in the urine. Therefore, urinary podocytes and PECs are noninvasive biomarkers of glomerular disease. The purpose of this protocol is to employ immunocytochemistry to detect podocytes and PECs, using the WT1 antibody on liquid-based cytology slides.

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