Cell Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 1316 Views Mar 20, 2024

Proliferating cells need to cope with extensive cytoskeletal and nuclear remodeling as they prepare to divide. These events are tightly regulated by the nuclear translocation of the cyclin B1-CDK1 complex, that is partly dependent on nuclear tension. Standard experimental approaches do not allow the manipulation of forces acting on cells in a time-resolved manner. Here, we describe a protocol that enables dynamic mechanical manipulation of single cells with high spatial and temporal resolution and its application in the context of cell division. In addition, we also outline a method for the manipulation of substrate stiffness using polyacrylamide hydrogels. Finally, we describe a static cell confinement setup, which can be used to study the impact of prolonged mechanical stimulation in populations of cells.

Key features

• Protocol for microfabrication of confinement devices.

• Single-cell dynamic confinement coupled with high-resolution microscopy.

• Static cell confinement protocol that can be combined with super-resolution STED microscopy.

• Analysis of the mechanical control of mitotic entry in a time-resolved manner.

Graphical overview

0 Q&A 664 Views May 5, 2023

Visualization of cell structure with fluorescent dye for characterizing cell size, shape, and arrangement is a common method to study tissue morphology and morphogenesis. In order to observe shoot apical meristem (SAM) in Arabidopsis thaliana by laser scanning confocal microscopy, we modified the pseudo-Schiff propidium iodide staining method by adding a series solution treatment to stain the deep cells. The advantage of this method is mainly reflected by the direct observation of the clearly bounded cell arrangement and the typical three-layer cells in SAM without the traditional tissue slicing.

0 Q&A 6591 Views Apr 20, 2018
Each cell contains many large DNA polymers packed in a nucleus of approx. 10 μm in diameter. With histones, these DNA polymers are known to form chromatins. How chromatins further compact in the nucleus is unclear but it inevitably depends on an extensive non-chromatin nuclear scaffold. Imaging of endogenous chromatin network and the complementary scaffold that support this network has not been achieved but biochemical and proteomic investigations of the scaffold can still provide important insights into this chromatin-organizing network. However, this demands highly inclusive and reproducible extraction of the nuclear scaffold. We have recently developed a simple protocol for releasing the scaffold components from chromatins. The inclusiveness of the extract was testified by the observation that, upon its extraction from the nuclei, the remaining nuclear chromatins were liberated into extended and often parallel chromatin fibers. Basically, this protocol includes the generation of pure nuclei, treatment of the nuclei with Triton X-100 to generate envelope-depleted nuclei (TxN), and extraction of the nuclei at 500 mM NaCl in a sucrose-containing buffer. This combined extract of TxN is known as TxNE.

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