Immunology


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0 Q&A 1840 Views Mar 20, 2024

CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing is a widely used tool for creating genetic knock-ins, which allow for endogenous tagging of genes. This is in contrast with random insertion using viral vectors, where expression of the inserted transgene changes the total copy number of a gene in a cell and does not reflect the endogenous chromatin environment or any trans-acting regulation experienced at a locus. There are very few protocols for endogenous fluorescent tagging in macrophages. Here, we describe a protocol to design and test CRISPR guide RNAs and donor plasmids, to transfect them into RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage-like cells using the Neon transfection system and to grow up clonal populations of cells containing the endogenous knock-in at various loci. We have used this protocol to create endogenous fluorescent knock-ins in at least six loci, including both endogenously tagging genes and inserting transgenes in the Rosa26 and Tigre safe harbor loci. This protocol uses circular plasmid DNA as the donor template and delivers the sgRNA and Cas9 as an all-in-one expression plasmid. We designed this protocol for fluorescent protein knock-ins; it is best used when positive clones can be identified by fluorescence. However, it may be possible to adapt the protocol for non-fluorescent knock-ins. This protocol allows for the fairly straightforward creation of clonal populations of macrophages with tags at the endogenous loci of genes. We also describe how to set up imaging experiments in 24-well plates to track fluorescence in the edited cells over time.


Key features

• CRISPR knock-in of fluorescent proteins in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages at diverse genomic loci.

• This protocol is optimized for the use of the Neon transfection system.

• Includes instructions for growing up edited clonal populations from single cells with one single-cell sorting step and efficient growth in conditioned media after cell sorting.

• Designed for knocking in fluorescent proteins and screening transfected cells byFACS, but modification for non-fluorescent knock-ins may be possible.


Graphical overview


1 Q&A 1116 Views Jul 20, 2023

Current means to quantify cells, gene expression, and fibrosis of liver histological slides are not standardized in the research community and typically rely upon data acquired from a selection of random regions identified in each slide. As such, analyses are subject to selection bias as well as limited subsets of available data elements throughout the slide. A whole-slide analysis of cells and fibrosis would provide for a more accurate and complete quantitative analysis, along with minimization of intra- and inter-experimental variables. Herein, we present LiverQuant, a method for quantifying whole-slide scans of digitized histologic images to render a more comprehensive analysis of presented data elements. After loading images and preparing the project in the QuPath program, researchers are provided with one to two scripts per analysis that generate an average intensity threshold for their staining, automated tissue annotation, and downstream detection of their anticipated cellular matrices. When compared with two standard methodologies for histological quantification, LiverQuant had two significant advantages: increased speed and a 50-fold greater tissue area coverage. Using publicly available open-source code (GitHub), LiverQuant improves the reliability and reproducibility of experimental results while reducing the time scientists require to perform bulk analysis of liver histology. This analytical process is readily adaptable by most laboratories, requires minimal optimization, and its principles and code can be optimized for use in other organs.


Graphical overview


0 Q&A 3010 Views Dec 5, 2020

During immune responses, B cells home to lymph nodes (LN), where they encounter antigens. Homing starts with capture and L-selectin-dependent rolling on the activated endothelium of high endothelial venules (HEV). After recognition of chemokines presented on HEV, activation of B cell integrins occurs mediating firm arrest. Subsequently, B cells crawl to the spot of extravasation to enter the LN. Extravasation can be visualized and quantified in vivo by intravital microscopy (IVM) of the inguinal LN. Here, we describe an established protocol that permits detailed in vivo analysis of B cell recruitment to LN under sterile inflammatory conditions. We describe data acquisition, exportation, quantification, and statistical analysis using specialized software. IVM of LN is a powerful technique that can provide a better understanding of B cell migratory behavior during inflammation in vivo.

0 Q&A 5457 Views Apr 20, 2019
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). In the last year, the improvements in the transgenic mouse technologies and imaging techniques have shed light on microglia functions under physiological conditions. Microglia continuously scan the brain parenchyma with their highly motile processes, maintaining tissue homeostasis and participating in neuronal circuits refinement. Here, we describe a protocol that enables us to perform time-lapse imaging of microglial cells in acute hippocampal slices, making image acquisition possible on an electrophysiology rig equipped with a standard imaging system. Using this ex vivo approach, we investigated microglial processes scanning abilities under physiological condition in hippocampus.
0 Q&A 15409 Views Jun 20, 2018
Macrophages have well-characterized roles in skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. Relatively little is known regarding the role of resident macrophages in skeletal muscle homeostasis, extracellular matrix remodeling, growth, metabolism and adaptation to various stimuli including exercise and training. Despite speculation into macrophage contributions during these processes, studies characterizing macrophages in non-injured muscle are limited and methods used to identify macrophages vary. A standardized method for the identification of human resident skeletal muscle macrophages will aide in the characterization of these immune cells and allow for the comparison of results across studies. Here, we present an immunohistochemistry (IHC) protocol, validated by flow cytometry, to distinctly identify resident human skeletal muscle macrophage populations. We show that CD11b and CD206 double IHC effectively identifies macrophages in human skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the majority of macrophages in non-injured human skeletal muscle show a ‘mixed’ M1/M2 phenotype, expressing CD11b, CD14, CD68, CD86 and CD206. A relatively small population of CD11b+/CD206- macrophages are present in resting skeletal muscle. Changes in the relative abundance of this population may reflect important changes in the skeletal muscle environment. CD11b and CD206 IHC in muscle also reveals distinct morphological features of macrophages that may be related to the functional status of these cells.
0 Q&A 7282 Views Dec 5, 2017
The established primary trigger of Alzheimer’s disease’s is β-amyloid (Aβ) (Mucke and Selkoe, 2012). Amyloid precursor protein (APP) endocytosis is required for Aβ generation at early endosomes (Rajendran and Annaert, 2012). APP retention at endosomes also depends on its recycling back to the plasma membrane (Koo et al., 1996; Ubelmann et al., 2017). The following recycling assay has been optimized to assess APP recycling by live murine Neuro2a cells, a neuroblastoma cell line (Ubelmann et al., 2017).



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